Core Driver Internals¶
Architectural overview of the Surface System Aggregator Module (SSAM) core and Surface Serial Hub (SSH) driver. For the API documentation, refer to:
The SSAM core implementation is structured in layers, somewhat following the SSH protocol structure:
Lower-level packet transport is implemented in the packet transport layer (PTL), directly building on top of the serial device (serdev) infrastructure of the kernel. As the name indicates, this layer deals with the packet transport logic and handles things like packet validation, packet acknowledgment (ACKing), packet (retransmission) timeouts, and relaying packet payloads to higher-level layers.
Above this sits the request transport layer (RTL). This layer is centered around command-type packet payloads, i.e. requests (sent from host to EC), responses of the EC to those requests, and events (sent from EC to host). It, specifically, distinguishes events from request responses, matches responses to their corresponding requests, and implements request timeouts.
The controller layer is building on top of this and essentially decides
how request responses and, especially, events are dealt with. It provides an
event notifier system, handles event activation/deactivation, provides a
workqueue for event and asynchronous request completion, and also manages
the message counters required for building command messages (
RQID). This layer basically provides a fundamental interface to the SAM
EC for use in other kernel drivers.
While the controller layer already provides an interface for other kernel
drivers, the client bus extends this interface to provide support for
native SSAM devices, i.e. devices that are not defined in ACPI and not
implemented as platform devices, via
struct ssam_device and
simplify management of client devices and client drivers.
Refer to Writing Client Drivers for documentation regarding the client device/driver API and interface options for other kernel drivers. It is recommended to familiarize oneself with that chapter and the Surface Serial Hub Protocol before continuing with the architectural overview below.
Packet Transport Layer¶
The packet transport layer is represented via
struct ssh_ptl and is structured
around the following key concepts:
Packets are the fundamental transmission unit of the SSH protocol. They are
managed by the packet transport layer, which is essentially the lowest layer
of the driver and is built upon by other components of the SSAM core.
Packets to be transmitted by the SSAM core are represented via
(in contrast, packets received by the core do not have any specific
structure and are managed entirely via the raw
This structure contains the required fields to manage the packet inside the
transport layer, as well as a reference to the buffer containing the data to
be transmitted (i.e. the message wrapped in
struct ssh_frame). Most notably, it
contains an internal reference count, which is used for managing its
lifetime (accessible via
ssh_packet_put()). When this
counter reaches zero, the
release() callback provided to the packet via
struct ssh_packet_ops reference is executed, which may then deallocate the
packet or its enclosing structure (e.g.
In addition to the
release callback, the
struct ssh_packet_ops reference also
complete() callback, which is run once the packet has been
completed and provides the status of this completion, i.e. zero on success
or a negative errno value in case of an error. Once the packet has been
submitted to the packet transport layer, the
complete() callback is
always guaranteed to be executed before the
release() callback, i.e. the
packet will always be completed, either successfully, with an error, or due
to cancellation, before it will be released.
The state of a packet is managed via its
enum ssh_packet_flags), which also contains the packet type. In particular,
the following bits are noteworthy:
SSH_PACKET_SF_LOCKED_BIT: This bit is set when completion, either through error or success, is imminent. It indicates that no further references of the packet should be taken and any existing references should be dropped as soon as possible. The process setting this bit is responsible for removing any references to this packet from the packet queue and pending set.
SSH_PACKET_SF_COMPLETED_BIT: This bit is set by the process running the
complete()callback and is used to ensure that this callback only runs once.
SSH_PACKET_SF_QUEUED_BIT: This bit is set when the packet is queued on the packet queue and cleared when it is dequeued.
SSH_PACKET_SF_PENDING_BIT: This bit is set when the packet is added to the pending set and cleared when it is removed from it.
The packet queue is the first of the two fundamental collections in the
packet transport layer. It is a priority queue, with priority of the
respective packets based on the packet type (major) and number of tries
SSH_PACKET_PRIORITY() for more details on the priority value.
All packets to be transmitted by the transport layer must be submitted to
this queue via
ssh_ptl_submit(). Note that this includes control packets
sent by the transport layer itself. Internally, data packets can be
re-submitted to this queue due to timeouts or NAK packets sent by the EC.
The pending set is the second of the two fundamental collections in the packet transport layer. It stores references to packets that have already been transmitted, but wait for acknowledgment (e.g. the corresponding ACK packet) by the EC.
Note that a packet may both be pending and queued if it has been re-submitted due to a packet acknowledgment timeout or NAK. On such a re-submission, packets are not removed from the pending set.
The transmitter thread is responsible for most of the actual work regarding packet transmission. In each iteration, it (waits for and) checks if the next packet on the queue (if any) can be transmitted and, if so, removes it from the queue and increments its counter for the number of transmission attempts, i.e. tries. If the packet is sequenced, i.e. requires an ACK by the EC, the packet is added to the pending set. Next, the packet’s data is submitted to the serdev subsystem. In case of an error or timeout during this submission, the packet is completed by the transmitter thread with the status value of the callback set accordingly. In case the packet is unsequenced, i.e. does not require an ACK by the EC, the packet is completed with success on the transmitter thread.
Transmission of sequenced packets is limited by the number of concurrently pending packets, i.e. a limit on how many packets may be waiting for an ACK from the EC in parallel. This limit is currently set to one (see Surface Serial Hub Protocol for the reasoning behind this). Control packets (i.e. ACK and NAK) can always be transmitted.
Any data received from the EC is put into a FIFO buffer for further
processing. This processing happens on the receiver thread. The receiver
thread parses and validates the received message into its
struct ssh_frame and
corresponding payload. It prepares and submits the necessary ACK (and on
validation error or invalid data NAK) packets for the received messages.
This thread also handles further processing, such as matching ACK messages to the corresponding pending packet (via sequence ID) and completing it, as well as initiating re-submission of all currently pending packets on receival of a NAK message (re-submission in case of a NAK is similar to re-submission due to timeout, see below for more details on that). Note that the successful completion of a sequenced packet will always run on the receiver thread (whereas any failure-indicating completion will run on the process where the failure occurred).
Any payload data is forwarded via a callback to the next upper layer, i.e. the request transport layer.
The packet acknowledgment timeout is a per-packet timeout for sequenced packets, started when the respective packet begins (re-)transmission (i.e. this timeout is armed once per transmission attempt on the transmitter thread). It is used to trigger re-submission or, when the number of tries has been exceeded, cancellation of the packet in question.
This timeout is handled via a dedicated reaper task, which is essentially a work item (re-)scheduled to run when the next packet is set to time out. The work item then checks the set of pending packets for any packets that have exceeded the timeout and, if there are any remaining packets, re-schedules itself to the next appropriate point in time.
If a timeout has been detected by the reaper, the packet will either be
re-submitted if it still has some remaining tries left, or completed with
-ETIMEDOUT as status if not. Note that re-submission, in this case and
triggered by receival of a NAK, means that the packet is added to the queue
with a now incremented number of tries, yielding a higher priority. The
timeout for the packet will be disabled until the next transmission attempt
and the packet remains on the pending set.
Note that due to transmission and packet acknowledgment timeouts, the packet transport layer is always guaranteed to make progress, if only through timing out packets, and will never fully block.
Concurrency and Locking¶
There are two main locks in the packet transport layer: One guarding access to the packet queue and one guarding access to the pending set. These collections may only be accessed and modified under the respective lock. If access to both collections is needed, the pending lock must be acquired before the queue lock to avoid deadlocks.
In addition to guarding the collections, after initial packet submission certain packet fields may only be accessed under one of the locks. Specifically, the packet priority must only be accessed while holding the queue lock and the packet timestamp must only be accessed while holding the pending lock.
Other parts of the packet transport layer are guarded independently. State flags are managed by atomic bit operations and, if necessary, memory barriers. Modifications to the timeout reaper work item and expiration date are guarded by their own lock.
The reference of the packet to the packet transport layer (
somewhat special. It is either set when the upper layer request is submitted
or, if there is none, when the packet is first submitted. After it is set,
it will not change its value. Functions that may run concurrently with
submission, i.e. cancellation, can not rely on the
ptl reference to be
set. Access to it in these functions is guarded by
ptl is equally guarded with
WRITE_ONCE() for symmetry.
Some packet fields may be read outside of the respective locks guarding
them, specifically priority and state for tracing. In those cases, proper
access is ensured by employing
read-only access is only allowed when stale values are not critical.
With respect to the interface for higher layers, packet submission
ssh_ptl_submit()), packet cancellation (
ssh_ptl_cancel()), data receival
ssh_ptl_rx_rcvbuf()), and layer shutdown (
ssh_ptl_shutdown()) may always be
executed concurrently with respect to each other. Note that packet
submission may not run concurrently with itself for the same packet.
Equally, shutdown and data receival may also not run concurrently with
themselves (but may run concurrently with each other).
Request Transport Layer¶
The request transport layer is represented via
struct ssh_rtl and builds on top
of the packet transport layer. It deals with requests, i.e. SSH packets sent
by the host containing a
struct ssh_command as frame payload. This layer
separates responses to requests from events, which are also sent by the EC
struct ssh_command payload. While responses are handled in this layer,
events are relayed to the next upper layer, i.e. the controller layer, via
the corresponding callback. The request transport layer is structured around
the following key concepts:
Requests are packets with a command-type payload, sent from host to EC to
query data from or trigger an action on it (or both simultaneously). They
are represented by
struct ssh_request, wrapping the underlying
storing its message data (i.e. SSH frame with command payload). Note that
all top-level representations, e.g.
struct ssam_request_sync are built upon this
struct ssh_request extends
struct ssh_packet, its lifetime is also managed by the
reference counter inside the packet struct (which can be accessed via
ssh_request_put()). Once the counter reaches zero, the
release() callback of the
struct ssh_request_ops reference of the request is
Requests can have an optional response that is equally sent via a SSH
message with command-type payload (from EC to host). The party constructing
the request must know if a response is expected and mark this in the request
flags provided to
ssh_request_init(), so that the request transport layer
can wait for this response.
struct ssh_request also has a
provided via its request ops reference and is guaranteed to be completed
before it is released once it has been submitted to the request transport
ssh_rtl_submit(). For a request without a response, successful
completion will occur once the underlying packet has been successfully
transmitted by the packet transport layer (i.e. from within the packet
completion callback). For a request with response, successful completion
will occur once the response has been received and matched to the request
via its request ID (which happens on the packet layer’s data-received
callback running on the receiver thread). If the request is completed with
an error, the status value will be set to the corresponding (negative) errno
The state of a request is again managed via its
enum ssh_request_flags), which also encode the request type. In particular,
the following bits are noteworthy:
SSH_REQUEST_SF_LOCKED_BIT: This bit is set when completion, either through error or success, is imminent. It indicates that no further references of the request should be taken and any existing references should be dropped as soon as possible. The process setting this bit is responsible for removing any references to this request from the request queue and pending set.
SSH_REQUEST_SF_COMPLETED_BIT: This bit is set by the process running the
complete()callback and is used to ensure that this callback only runs once.
SSH_REQUEST_SF_QUEUED_BIT: This bit is set when the request is queued on the request queue and cleared when it is dequeued.
SSH_REQUEST_SF_PENDING_BIT: This bit is set when the request is added to the pending set and cleared when it is removed from it.
The request queue is the first of the two fundamental collections in the request transport layer. In contrast to the packet queue of the packet transport layer, it is not a priority queue and the simple first come first serve principle applies.
All requests to be transmitted by the request transport layer must be
submitted to this queue via
ssh_rtl_submit(). Once submitted, requests may
not be re-submitted, and will not be re-submitted automatically on timeout.
Instead, the request is completed with a timeout error. If desired, the
caller can create and submit a new request for another try, but it must not
submit the same request again.
The pending set is the second of the two fundamental collections in the request transport layer. This collection stores references to all pending requests, i.e. requests awaiting a response from the EC (similar to what the pending set of the packet transport layer does for packets).
The transmitter task is scheduled when a new request is available for transmission. It checks if the next request on the request queue can be transmitted and, if so, submits its underlying packet to the packet transport layer. This check ensures that only a limited number of requests can be pending, i.e. waiting for a response, at the same time. If the request requires a response, the request is added to the pending set before its packet is submitted.
Packet Completion Callback¶
The packet completion callback is executed once the underlying packet of a request has been completed. In case of an error completion, the corresponding request is completed with the error value provided in this callback.
On successful packet completion, further processing depends on the request. If the request expects a response, it is marked as transmitted and the request timeout is started. If the request does not expect a response, it is completed with success.
The data received callback notifies the request transport layer of data being received by the underlying packet transport layer via a data-type frame. In general, this is expected to be a command-type payload.
If the request ID of the command is one of the request IDs reserved for
events (one to
SSH_NUM_EVENTS, inclusively), it is forwarded to the
event callback registered in the request transport layer. If the request ID
indicates a response to a request, the respective request is looked up in
the pending set and, if found and marked as transmitted, completed with
The request-response-timeout is a per-request timeout for requests expecting a response. It is used to ensure that a request does not wait indefinitely on a response from the EC and is started after the underlying packet has been successfully completed.
This timeout is, similar to the packet acknowledgment timeout on the packet
transport layer, handled via a dedicated reaper task. This task is
essentially a work-item (re-)scheduled to run when the next request is set
to time out. The work item then scans the set of pending requests for any
requests that have timed out and completes them with
status. Requests will not be re-submitted automatically. Instead, the issuer
of the request must construct and submit a new request, if so desired.
Note that this timeout, in combination with packet transmission and acknowledgment timeouts, guarantees that the request layer will always make progress, even if only through timing out packets, and never fully block.
Concurrency and Locking¶
Similar to the packet transport layer, there are two main locks in the request transport layer: One guarding access to the request queue and one guarding access to the pending set. These collections may only be accessed and modified under the respective lock.
Other parts of the request transport layer are guarded independently. State flags are (again) managed by atomic bit operations and, if necessary, memory barriers. Modifications to the timeout reaper work item and expiration date are guarded by their own lock.
Some request fields may be read outside of the respective locks guarding
them, specifically the state for tracing. In those cases, proper access is
ensured by employing
READ_ONCE(). Such read-only
access is only allowed when stale values are not critical.
With respect to the interface for higher layers, request submission
ssh_rtl_submit()), request cancellation (
ssh_rtl_cancel()), and layer
ssh_rtl_shutdown()) may always be executed concurrently with
respect to each other. Note that request submission may not run concurrently
with itself for the same request (and also may only be called once per
request). Equally, shutdown may also not run concurrently with itself.
The controller layer extends on the request transport layer to provide an
easy-to-use interface for client drivers. It is represented by
struct ssam_controller and the SSH driver. While the lower level transport layers
take care of transmitting and handling packets and requests, the controller
layer takes on more of a management role. Specifically, it handles device
initialization, power management, and event handling, including event
delivery and registration via the (event) completion system (
In general, an event (or rather a class of events) has to be explicitly requested by the host before the EC will send it (HID input events seem to be the exception). This is done via an event-enable request (similarly, events should be disabled via an event-disable request once no longer desired).
The specific request used to enable (or disable) an event is given via an
event registry, i.e. the governing authority of this event (so to speak),
struct ssam_event_registry. As parameters to this request, the
target category and, depending on the event registry, instance ID of the
event to be enabled must be provided. This (optional) instance ID must be
zero if the registry does not use it. Together, target category and instance
ID form the event ID, represented by
struct ssam_event_id. In short, both, event
registry and event ID, are required to uniquely identify a respective class
Note that a further request ID parameter must be provided for the
enable-event request. This parameter does not influence the class of events
being enabled, but instead is set as the request ID (RQID) on each event of
this class sent by the EC. It is used to identify events (as a limited
number of request IDs is reserved for use in events only, specifically one
SSH_NUM_EVENTS inclusively) and also map events to their specific
class. Currently, the controller always sets this parameter to the target
category specified in
As multiple client drivers may rely on the same (or overlapping) classes of
events and enable/disable calls are strictly binary (i.e. on/off), the
controller has to manage access to these events. It does so via reference
counting, storing the counter inside an RB-tree based mapping with event
registry and ID as key (there is no known list of valid event registry and
event ID combinations). See
ssam_nf_refcount_dec() for details.
To receive events, a client driver has to register an event notifier via
ssam_notifier_register(). This increments the reference counter for that
specific class of events (as detailed in the previous section), enables the
class on the EC (if it has not been enabled already), and installs the
provided notifier callback.
Notifier callbacks are stored in lists, with one (RCU) list per target category (provided via the event ID; NB: there is a fixed known number of target categories). There is no known association from the combination of event registry and event ID to the command data (target ID, target category, command ID, and instance ID) that can be provided by an event class, apart from target category and instance ID given via the event ID.
Note that due to the way notifiers are (or rather have to be) stored, client drivers may receive events that they have not requested and need to account for them. Specifically, they will, by default, receive all events from the same target category. To simplify dealing with this, filtering of events by target ID (provided via the event registry) and instance ID (provided via the event ID) can be requested when registering a notifier. This filtering is applied when iterating over the notifiers at the time they are executed.
All notifier callbacks are executed on a dedicated workqueue, the so-called
completion workqueue. After an event has been received via the callback
installed in the request layer (running on the receiver thread of the packet
transport layer), it will be put on its respective event queue
struct ssam_event_queue). From this event queue the completion work item of that
queue (running on the completion workqueue) will pick up the event and
execute the notifier callback. This is done to avoid blocking on the
There is one event queue per combination of target ID and target category. This is done to ensure that notifier callbacks are executed in sequence for events of the same target ID and target category. Callbacks can be executed in parallel for events with a different combination of target ID and target category.
Concurrency and Locking¶
Most of the concurrency related safety guarantees of the controller are provided by the lower-level request transport layer. In addition to this, event (un-)registration is guarded by its own lock.
Access to the controller state is guarded by the state lock. This lock is a
read/write semaphore. The reader part can be used to ensure that the state
does not change while functions depending on the state to stay the same
ssam_request_sync_submit(), and derivatives) are executed and this guarantee
is not already provided otherwise (e.g. through
ssam_client_link()). The writer part guards any transitions that will change
the state, i.e. initialization, destruction, suspension, and resumption.
The controller state may be accessed (read-only) outside the state lock for
smoke-testing against invalid API usage (e.g. in
Note that such checks are not supposed to (and will not) protect against all
invalid usages, but rather aim to help catch them. In those cases, proper
variable access is ensured by employing
Assuming any preconditions on the state not changing have been satisfied,
all non-initialization and non-shutdown functions may run concurrently with
each other. This includes
ssam_request_sync_submit(), as well as all functions building on top of those.