SYNOPSIS

git-rev-list [ --max-count=number ] [ --skip=number ] [ --max-age=timestamp ] [ --min-age=timestamp ] [ --sparse ] [ --merges ] [ --no-merges ] [ --first-parent ] [ --remove-empty ] [ --full-history ] [ --not ] [ --all ] [ --branches ] [ --tags ] [ --remotes ] [ --stdin ] [ --quiet ] [ --topo-order ] [ --parents ] [ --timestamp ] [ --left-right ] [ --cherry-pick ] [ --encoding[=<encoding>] ] [ --(author|committer|grep)=<pattern> ] [ --regexp-ignore-case | -i ] [ --extended-regexp | -E ] [ --fixed-strings | -F ] [ --date={local|relative|default|iso|rfc|short} ] [ [--objects | --objects-edge] [ --unpacked ] ] [ --pretty | --header ] [ --bisect ] [ --bisect-vars ] [ --bisect-all ] [ --merge ] [ --reverse ] [ --walk-reflogs ] [ --no-walk ] [ --do-walk ] <commit>… [ -- <paths>… ]

DESCRIPTION

List commits that are reachable by following the parent links from the given commit(s), but exclude commits that are reachable from the one(s) given with a ^ in front of them. The output is given in reverse chronological order by default.

You can think of this as a set operation. Commits given on the command line form a set of commits that are reachable from any of them, and then commits reachable from any of the ones given with ^ in front are subtracted from that set. The remaining commits are what comes out in the command’s output. Various other options and paths parameters can be used to further limit the result.

Thus, the following command:

        $ git rev-list foo bar ^baz

means "list all the commits which are reachable from foo or bar, but not from baz".

A special notation "<commit1>..<commit2>" can be used as a short-hand for "^<commit1> <commit2>". For example, either of the following may be used interchangeably:

        $ git rev-list origin..HEAD
        $ git rev-list HEAD ^origin

Another special notation is "<commit1><commit2>" which is useful for merges. The resulting set of commits is the symmetric difference between the two operands. The following two commands are equivalent:

        $ git rev-list A B --not $(git merge-base --all A B)
        $ git rev-list A...B

rev-list is a very essential git command, since it provides the ability to build and traverse commit ancestry graphs. For this reason, it has a lot of different options that enables it to be used by commands as different as git-bisect and git-repack.

OPTIONS

Commit Formatting

Using these options, git-rev-list(1) will act similar to the more specialized family of commit log tools: git-log(1), git-show(1), and git-whatchanged(1)

--pretty[=<format>]
--format[=<format>]

Pretty-print the contents of the commit logs in a given format, where <format> can be one of oneline, short, medium, full, fuller, email, raw and format:<string>. When omitted, the format defaults to medium.

Note: you can specify the default pretty format in the repository configuration (see git-config(1)).

--abbrev-commit

Instead of showing the full 40-byte hexadecimal commit object name, show only a partial prefix. Non default number of digits can be specified with "--abbrev=<n>" (which also modifies diff output, if it is displayed).

This should make "--pretty=oneline" a whole lot more readable for people using 80-column terminals.

--oneline

This is a shorthand for "--pretty=oneline --abbrev-commit" used together.

--encoding[=<encoding>]

The commit objects record the encoding used for the log message in their encoding header; this option can be used to tell the command to re-code the commit log message in the encoding preferred by the user. For non plumbing commands this defaults to UTF-8.

--no-notes
--show-notes

Show the notes (see git-notes(1)) that annotate the commit, when showing the commit log message. This is the default for git log, git show and git whatchanged commands when there is no --pretty, --format nor --oneline option is given on the command line.

--relative-date

Synonym for --date=relative.

--date={relative,local,default,iso,rfc,short,raw}

Only takes effect for dates shown in human-readable format, such as when using "--pretty". log.date config variable sets a default value for log command’s --date option.

--date=relative shows dates relative to the current time, e.g. "2 hours ago".

--date=local shows timestamps in user’s local timezone.

--date=iso (or --date=iso8601) shows timestamps in ISO 8601 format.

--date=rfc (or --date=rfc2822) shows timestamps in RFC 2822 format, often found in E-mail messages.

--date=short shows only date but not time, in YYYY-MM-DD format.

--date=raw shows the date in the internal raw git format %s %z format.

--date=default shows timestamps in the original timezone (either committer’s or author’s).

--header

Print the contents of the commit in raw-format; each record is separated with a NUL character.

--parents

Print the parents of the commit. Also enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

--children

Print the children of the commit. Also enables parent rewriting, see History Simplification below.

--timestamp

Print the raw commit timestamp.

--left-right

Mark which side of a symmetric diff a commit is reachable from. Commits from the left side are prefixed with < and those from the right with >. If combined with --boundary, those commits are prefixed with -.

For example, if you have this topology:

             y---b---b  branch B
            / \ /
           /   .
          /   / \
         o---x---a---a  branch A

you would get an output like this:

        $ git rev-list --left-right --boundary --pretty=oneline A...B

        >bbbbbbb... 3rd on b
        >bbbbbbb... 2nd on b
        <aaaaaaa... 3rd on a
        <aaaaaaa... 2nd on a
        -yyyyyyy... 1st on b
        -xxxxxxx... 1st on a
--graph

Draw a text-based graphical representation of the commit history on the left hand side of the output. This may cause extra lines to be printed in between commits, in order for the graph history to be drawn properly.

This implies the --topo-order option by default, but the --date-order option may also be specified.

Commit Limiting

Besides specifying a range of commits that should be listed using the special notations explained in the description, additional commit limiting may be applied.

-n number
--max-count=<number>

Limit the number of commits output.

--skip=<number>

Skip number commits before starting to show the commit output.

--since=<date>
--after=<date>

Show commits more recent than a specific date.

--until=<date>
--before=<date>

Show commits older than a specific date.

--max-age=<timestamp>
--min-age=<timestamp>

Limit the commits output to specified time range.

--author=<pattern>
--committer=<pattern>

Limit the commits output to ones with author/committer header lines that match the specified pattern (regular expression).

--grep=<pattern>

Limit the commits output to ones with log message that matches the specified pattern (regular expression).

--all-match

Limit the commits output to ones that match all given --grep, --author and --committer instead of ones that match at least one.

-i
--regexp-ignore-case

Match the regexp limiting patterns without regard to letters case.

-E
--extended-regexp

Consider the limiting patterns to be extended regular expressions instead of the default basic regular expressions.

-F
--fixed-strings

Consider the limiting patterns to be fixed strings (don’t interpret pattern as a regular expression).

--remove-empty

Stop when a given path disappears from the tree.

--merges

Print only merge commits.

--no-merges

Do not print commits with more than one parent.

--first-parent

Follow only the first parent commit upon seeing a merge commit. This option can give a better overview when viewing the evolution of a particular topic branch, because merges into a topic branch tend to be only about adjusting to updated upstream from time to time, and this option allows you to ignore the individual commits brought in to your history by such a merge.

--not

Reverses the meaning of the ^ prefix (or lack thereof) for all following revision specifiers, up to the next --not.

--all

Pretend as if all the refs in $GIT_DIR/refs/ are listed on the command line as <commit>.

--branches

Pretend as if all the refs in $GIT_DIR/refs/heads are listed on the command line as <commit>.

--tags

Pretend as if all the refs in $GIT_DIR/refs/tags are listed on the command line as <commit>.

--remotes

Pretend as if all the refs in $GIT_DIR/refs/remotes are listed on the command line as <commit>.

--stdin

In addition to the <commit> listed on the command line, read them from the standard input. If a -- separator is seen, stop reading commits and start reading paths to limit the result.

--quiet

Don’t print anything to standard output. This form is primarily meant to allow the caller to test the exit status to see if a range of objects is fully connected (or not). It is faster than redirecting stdout to /dev/null as the output does not have to be formatted.

--cherry-pick

Omit any commit that introduces the same change as another commit on the "other side" when the set of commits are limited with symmetric difference.

For example, if you have two branches, A and B, a usual way to list all commits on only one side of them is with --left-right, like the example above in the description of that option. It however shows the commits that were cherry-picked from the other branch (for example, "3rd on b" may be cherry-picked from branch A). With this option, such pairs of commits are excluded from the output.

-g
--walk-reflogs

Instead of walking the commit ancestry chain, walk reflog entries from the most recent one to older ones. When this option is used you cannot specify commits to exclude (that is, ^commit, commit1..commit2, nor commit1…commit2 notations cannot be used).

With --pretty format other than oneline (for obvious reasons), this causes the output to have two extra lines of information taken from the reflog. By default, commit@{Nth} notation is used in the output. When the starting commit is specified as commit@{now}, output also uses commit@{timestamp} notation instead. Under --pretty=oneline, the commit message is prefixed with this information on the same line. This option cannot be combined with --reverse. See also git-reflog(1).

--merge

After a failed merge, show refs that touch files having a conflict and don’t exist on all heads to merge.

--boundary

Output uninteresting commits at the boundary, which are usually not shown.

History Simplification

Sometimes you are only interested in parts of the history, for example the commits modifying a particular <path>. But there are two parts of History Simplification, one part is selecting the commits and the other is how to do it, as there are various strategies to simplify the history.

The following options select the commits to be shown:

<paths>

Commits modifying the given <paths> are selected.

--simplify-by-decoration

Commits that are referred by some branch or tag are selected.

Note that extra commits can be shown to give a meaningful history.

The following options affect the way the simplification is performed:

Default mode

Simplifies the history to the simplest history explaining the final state of the tree. Simplest because it prunes some side branches if the end result is the same (i.e. merging branches with the same content)

--full-history

As the default mode but does not prune some history.

--dense

Only the selected commits are shown, plus some to have a meaningful history.

--sparse

All commits in the simplified history are shown.

--simplify-merges

Additional option to --full-history to remove some needless merges from the resulting history, as there are no selected commits contributing to this merge.

A more detailed explanation follows.

Suppose you specified foo as the <paths>. We shall call commits that modify foo !TREESAME, and the rest TREESAME. (In a diff filtered for foo, they look different and equal, respectively.)

In the following, we will always refer to the same example history to illustrate the differences between simplification settings. We assume that you are filtering for a file foo in this commit graph:

          .-A---M---N---O---P
         /     /   /   /   /
        I     B   C   D   E
         \   /   /   /   /
          `-------------'

The horizontal line of history A—P is taken to be the first parent of each merge. The commits are:

rev-list walks backwards through history, including or excluding commits based on whether --full-history and/or parent rewriting (via --parents or --children) are used. The following settings are available.

Default mode

Commits are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent (though this can be changed, see --sparse below). If the commit was a merge, and it was TREESAME to one parent, follow only that parent. (Even if there are several TREESAME parents, follow only one of them.) Otherwise, follow all parents.

This results in:

          .-A---N---O
         /         /
        I---------D

Note how the rule to only follow the TREESAME parent, if one is available, removed B from consideration entirely. C was considered via N, but is TREESAME. Root commits are compared to an empty tree, so I is !TREESAME.

Parent/child relations are only visible with --parents, but that does not affect the commits selected in default mode, so we have shown the parent lines.

--full-history without parent rewriting

This mode differs from the default in one point: always follow all parents of a merge, even if it is TREESAME to one of them. Even if more than one side of the merge has commits that are included, this does not imply that the merge itself is! In the example, we get

        I  A  B  N  D  O

P and M were excluded because they are TREESAME to a parent. E, C and B were all walked, but only B was !TREESAME, so the others do not appear.

Note that without parent rewriting, it is not really possible to talk about the parent/child relationships between the commits, so we show them disconnected.

--full-history with parent rewriting

Ordinary commits are only included if they are !TREESAME (though this can be changed, see --sparse below).

Merges are always included. However, their parent list is rewritten: Along each parent, prune away commits that are not included themselves. This results in

          .-A---M---N---O---P
         /     /   /   /   /
        I     B   /   D   /
         \   /   /   /   /
          `-------------'

Compare to --full-history without rewriting above. Note that E was pruned away because it is TREESAME, but the parent list of P was rewritten to contain E's parent I. The same happened for C and N. Note also that P was included despite being TREESAME.

In addition to the above settings, you can change whether TREESAME affects inclusion:

--dense

Commits that are walked are included if they are not TREESAME to any parent.

--sparse

All commits that are walked are included.

Note that without --full-history, this still simplifies merges: if one of the parents is TREESAME, we follow only that one, so the other sides of the merge are never walked.

Finally, there is a fourth simplification mode available:

--simplify-merges

First, build a history graph in the same way that --full-history with parent rewriting does (see above).

Then simplify each commit C to its replacement C' in the final history according to the following rules:

  • Set C' to C.

  • Replace each parent P of C' with its simplification P'. In the process, drop parents that are ancestors of other parents, and remove duplicates.

  • If after this parent rewriting, C' is a root or merge commit (has zero or >1 parents), a boundary commit, or !TREESAME, it remains. Otherwise, it is replaced with its only parent.

The effect of this is best shown by way of comparing to --full-history with parent rewriting. The example turns into:

          .-A---M---N---O
         /     /       /
        I     B       D
         \   /       /
          `---------'

Note the major differences in N and P over --full-history:

  • N's parent list had I removed, because it is an ancestor of the other parent M. Still, N remained because it is !TREESAME.

  • P's parent list similarly had I removed. P was then removed completely, because it had one parent and is TREESAME.

The --simplify-by-decoration option allows you to view only the big picture of the topology of the history, by omitting commits that are not referenced by tags. Commits are marked as !TREESAME (in other words, kept after history simplification rules described above) if (1) they are referenced by tags, or (2) they change the contents of the paths given on the command line. All other commits are marked as TREESAME (subject to be simplified away).

Bisection Helpers

--bisect

Limit output to the one commit object which is roughly halfway between included and excluded commits. Note that the bad bisection ref $GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/bad is added to the included commits (if it exists) and the good bisection refs $GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/good-* are added to the excluded commits (if they exist). Thus, supposing there are no refs in $GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/, if

        $ git rev-list --bisect foo ^bar ^baz

outputs midpoint, the output of the two commands

        $ git rev-list foo ^midpoint
        $ git rev-list midpoint ^bar ^baz

would be of roughly the same length. Finding the change which introduces a regression is thus reduced to a binary search: repeatedly generate and test new 'midpoint’s until the commit chain is of length one.

--bisect-vars

This calculates the same as --bisect, except that refs in $GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/ are not used, and except that this outputs text ready to be eval’ed by the shell. These lines will assign the name of the midpoint revision to the variable bisect_rev, and the expected number of commits to be tested after bisect_rev is tested to bisect_nr, the expected number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be good to bisect_good, the expected number of commits to be tested if bisect_rev turns out to be bad to bisect_bad, and the number of commits we are bisecting right now to bisect_all.

--bisect-all

This outputs all the commit objects between the included and excluded commits, ordered by their distance to the included and excluded commits. Refs in $GIT_DIR/refs/bisect/ are not used. The farthest from them is displayed first. (This is the only one displayed by --bisect.)

This is useful because it makes it easy to choose a good commit to test when you want to avoid to test some of them for some reason (they may not compile for example).

This option can be used along with --bisect-vars, in this case, after all the sorted commit objects, there will be the same text as if --bisect-vars had been used alone.

Commit Ordering

By default, the commits are shown in reverse chronological order.

--topo-order

This option makes them appear in topological order (i.e. descendant commits are shown before their parents).

--date-order

This option is similar to --topo-order in the sense that no parent comes before all of its children, but otherwise things are still ordered in the commit timestamp order.

--reverse

Output the commits in reverse order. Cannot be combined with --walk-reflogs.

Object Traversal

These options are mostly targeted for packing of git repositories.

--objects

Print the object IDs of any object referenced by the listed commits. --objects foo ^bar thus means "send me all object IDs which I need to download if I have the commit object bar, but not foo".

--objects-edge

Similar to --objects, but also print the IDs of excluded commits prefixed with a "-" character. This is used by git-pack-objects(1) to build "thin" pack, which records objects in deltified form based on objects contained in these excluded commits to reduce network traffic.

--unpacked

Only useful with --objects; print the object IDs that are not in packs.

--no-walk

Only show the given revs, but do not traverse their ancestors.

--do-walk

Overrides a previous --no-walk.

PRETTY FORMATS

If the commit is a merge, and if the pretty-format is not oneline, email or raw, an additional line is inserted before the Author: line. This line begins with "Merge: " and the sha1s of ancestral commits are printed, separated by spaces. Note that the listed commits may not necessarily be the list of the direct parent commits if you have limited your view of history: for example, if you are only interested in changes related to a certain directory or file.

Here are some additional details for each format:

Note
Some placeholders may depend on other options given to the revision traversal engine. For example, the %g* reflog options will insert an empty string unless we are traversing reflog entries (e.g., by git log -g). The %d placeholder will use the "short" decoration format if --decorate was not already provided on the command line.

If you add a {plus} (plus sign) after % of a placeholder, a line-feed is inserted immediately before the expansion if and only if the placeholder expands to a non-empty string.

If you add a - (minus sign) after % of a placeholder, line-feeds that immediately precede the expansion are deleted if and only if the placeholder expands to an empty string.

Author

Written by Linus Torvalds <torvalds@osdl.org>

Documentation

Documentation by David Greaves, Junio C Hamano, Jonas Fonseca and the git-list <git@vger.kernel.org>.

GIT

Part of the git(1) suite