git-push [--all] [--tags] [-f | --force] <repository> <refspec>…


Updates remote refs using local refs, while sending objects necessary to complete the given refs.

You can make interesting things happen to a repository every time you push into it, by setting up hooks there. See documentation for gitlink:git-receive-pack[1].



The "remote" repository that is destination of a push operation. See the section GIT URLS below.


The canonical format of a <refspec> parameter is +?<src>:<dst>; that is, an optional plus +, followed by the source ref, followed by a colon :, followed by the destination ref.

The <src> side can be an arbitrary "SHA1 expression" that can be used as an argument to git-cat-file -t. E.g. master~4 (push four parents before the current master head).

The local ref that matches <src> is used to fast forward the remote ref that matches <dst>. If the optional plus + is used, the remote ref is updated even if it does not result in a fast forward update.

Note: If no explicit refspec is found, (that is neither on the command line nor in any Push line of the corresponding remotes file---see below), then all the refs that exist both on the local side and on the remote side are updated.

Some short-cut notations are also supported.

  • tag <tag> means the same as refs/tags/<tag>:refs/tags/<tag>.

  • A parameter <ref> without a colon is equivalent to <ref>:<ref>, hence updates <ref> in the destination from <ref> in the source.


Instead of naming each ref to push, specifies that all refs be pushed.


All refs under $GIT_DIR/refs/tags are pushed, in addition to refspecs explicitly listed on the command line.

-f, --force

Usually, the command refuses to update a remote ref that is not a descendant of the local ref used to overwrite it. This flag disables the check. This can cause the remote repository to lose commits; use it with care.


One of the following notations can be used to name the remote repository:

SSH is the default transport protocol. You can optionally specify which user to log-in as, and an alternate, scp-like syntax is also supported. Both syntaxes support username expansion, as does the native git protocol. The following three are identical to the last three above, respectively:

  • [user@]host.xz:/path/to/repo.git/

  • [user@]host.xz:~user/path/to/repo.git/

  • [user@]host.xz:path/to/repo.git

To sync with a local directory, use:

  • /path/to/repo.git/


In addition to the above, as a short-hand, the name of a file in $GIT_DIR/remotes directory can be given; the named file should be in the following format:

URL: one of the above URL format
Push: <refspec>
Pull: <refspec>

Then such a short-hand is specified in place of <repository> without <refspec> parameters on the command line, <refspec> specified on Push: lines or Pull: lines are used for git-push and git-fetch/git-pull, respectively. Multiple Push: and Pull: lines may be specified for additional branch mappings.

Or, equivalently, in the $GIT_DIR/config (note the use of fetch instead of Pull:):

url = <url>
push = <refspec>
fetch = <refspec>

The name of a file in $GIT_DIR/branches directory can be specified as an older notation short-hand; the named file should contain a single line, a URL in one of the above formats, optionally followed by a hash # and the name of remote head (URL fragment notation). $GIT_DIR/branches/<remote> file that stores a <url> without the fragment is equivalent to have this in the corresponding file in the $GIT_DIR/remotes/ directory.

URL: <url>
Pull: refs/heads/master:<remote>

while having <url>#<head> is equivalent to

URL: <url>
Pull: refs/heads/<head>:<remote>


Written by Junio C Hamano <>


Documentation by Junio C Hamano and the git-list <>.


Part of the gitlink:git[7] suite