Textbooks will tell you that if you always lock in the same order, you will never get this kind of deadlock. Practice will tell you that this approach doesn't scale: when I create a new lock, I don't understand enough of the kernel to figure out where in the 5000 lock hierarchy it will fit.
The best locks are encapsulated: they never get exposed in headers, and are never held around calls to non-trivial functions outside the same file. You can read through this code and see that it will never deadlock, because it never tries to grab another lock while it has that one. People using your code don't even need to know you are using a lock.
A classic problem here is when you provide callbacks or hooks: if you call these with the lock held, you risk simple deadlock, or a deadly embrace (who knows what the callback will do?). Remember, the other programmers are out to get you, so don't do this.
Deadlocks are problematic, but not as bad as data corruption. Code which grabs a read lock, searches a list, fails to find what it wants, drops the read lock, grabs a write lock and inserts the object has a race condition.
If you don't see why, please stay the fuck away from my code.