1 Clang implementation notes

This document provides more details specific to the Clang/LLVM implementation of the eBPF instruction set.

1.1 Versions

Clang defined "CPU" versions, where a CPU version of 3 corresponds to the current eBPF ISA.

Clang can select the eBPF ISA version using -mcpu=v3 for example to select version 3.

1.2 Arithmetic instructions

For CPU versions prior to 3, Clang v7.0 and later can enable BPF_ALU support with -Xclang -target-feature -Xclang +alu32. In CPU version 3, support is automatically included.

1.3 Jump instructions

If -O0 is used, Clang will generate the BPF_CALL | BPF_X | BPF_JMP (0x8d) instruction, which is not supported by the Linux kernel verifier.

1.4 Atomic operations

Clang can generate atomic instructions by default when -mcpu=v3 is enabled. If a lower version for -mcpu is set, the only atomic instruction Clang can generate is BPF_ADD without BPF_FETCH. If you need to enable the atomics features, while keeping a lower -mcpu version, you can use -Xclang -target-feature -Xclang +alu32.