Linux Filesystems API summary

This section contains API-level documentation, mostly taken from the source code itself.

The Linux VFS

The Filesystem types

enum positive_aop_returns

aop return codes with specific semantics

Constants

AOP_WRITEPAGE_ACTIVATE

Informs the caller that page writeback has completed, that the page is still locked, and should be considered active. The VM uses this hint to return the page to the active list -- it won’t be a candidate for writeback again in the near future. Other callers must be careful to unlock the page if they get this return. Returned by writepage();

AOP_TRUNCATED_PAGE

The AOP method that was handed a locked page has unlocked it and the page might have been truncated. The caller should back up to acquiring a new page and trying again. The aop will be taking reasonable precautions not to livelock. If the caller held a page reference, it should drop it before retrying. Returned by read_folio().

Description

address_space_operation functions return these large constants to indicate special semantics to the caller. These are much larger than the bytes in a page to allow for functions that return the number of bytes operated on in a given page.

struct address_space

Contents of a cacheable, mappable object.

Definition:

struct address_space {
    struct inode            *host;
    struct xarray           i_pages;
    struct rw_semaphore     invalidate_lock;
    gfp_t gfp_mask;
    atomic_t i_mmap_writable;
#ifdef CONFIG_READ_ONLY_THP_FOR_FS;
    atomic_t nr_thps;
#endif;
    struct rb_root_cached   i_mmap;
    unsigned long           nrpages;
    pgoff_t writeback_index;
    const struct address_space_operations *a_ops;
    unsigned long           flags;
    errseq_t wb_err;
    spinlock_t i_private_lock;
    struct list_head        i_private_list;
    struct rw_semaphore     i_mmap_rwsem;
    void *                  i_private_data;
};

Members

host

Owner, either the inode or the block_device.

i_pages

Cached pages.

invalidate_lock

Guards coherency between page cache contents and file offset->disk block mappings in the filesystem during invalidates. It is also used to block modification of page cache contents through memory mappings.

gfp_mask

Memory allocation flags to use for allocating pages.

i_mmap_writable

Number of VM_SHARED, VM_MAYWRITE mappings.

nr_thps

Number of THPs in the pagecache (non-shmem only).

i_mmap

Tree of private and shared mappings.

nrpages

Number of page entries, protected by the i_pages lock.

writeback_index

Writeback starts here.

a_ops

Methods.

flags

Error bits and flags (AS_*).

wb_err

The most recent error which has occurred.

i_private_lock

For use by the owner of the address_space.

i_private_list

For use by the owner of the address_space.

i_mmap_rwsem

Protects i_mmap and i_mmap_writable.

i_private_data

For use by the owner of the address_space.

struct file_ra_state

Track a file’s readahead state.

Definition:

struct file_ra_state {
    pgoff_t start;
    unsigned int size;
    unsigned int async_size;
    unsigned int ra_pages;
    unsigned int mmap_miss;
    loff_t prev_pos;
};

Members

start

Where the most recent readahead started.

size

Number of pages read in the most recent readahead.

async_size

Numer of pages that were/are not needed immediately and so were/are genuinely “ahead”. Start next readahead when the first of these pages is accessed.

ra_pages

Maximum size of a readahead request, copied from the bdi.

mmap_miss

How many mmap accesses missed in the page cache.

prev_pos

The last byte in the most recent read request.

Description

When this structure is passed to ->readahead(), the “most recent” readahead means the current readahead.

vfsuid_t i_uid_into_vfsuid(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct inode *inode)

map an inode’s i_uid down according to an idmapping

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

const struct inode *inode

inode to map

Return

whe inode’s i_uid mapped down according to idmap. If the inode’s i_uid has no mapping INVALID_VFSUID is returned.

bool i_uid_needs_update(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct iattr *attr, const struct inode *inode)

check whether inode’s i_uid needs to be updated

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

const struct iattr *attr

the new attributes of inode

const struct inode *inode

the inode to update

Description

Check whether the $inode’s i_uid field needs to be updated taking idmapped mounts into account if the filesystem supports it.

Return

true if inode’s i_uid field needs to be updated, false if not.

void i_uid_update(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct iattr *attr, struct inode *inode)

update inode’s i_uid field

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

const struct iattr *attr

the new attributes of inode

struct inode *inode

the inode to update

Description

Safely update inode’s i_uid field translating the vfsuid of any idmapped mount into the filesystem kuid.

vfsgid_t i_gid_into_vfsgid(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct inode *inode)

map an inode’s i_gid down according to an idmapping

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

const struct inode *inode

inode to map

Return

the inode’s i_gid mapped down according to idmap. If the inode’s i_gid has no mapping INVALID_VFSGID is returned.

bool i_gid_needs_update(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct iattr *attr, const struct inode *inode)

check whether inode’s i_gid needs to be updated

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

const struct iattr *attr

the new attributes of inode

const struct inode *inode

the inode to update

Description

Check whether the $inode’s i_gid field needs to be updated taking idmapped mounts into account if the filesystem supports it.

Return

true if inode’s i_gid field needs to be updated, false if not.

void i_gid_update(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct iattr *attr, struct inode *inode)

update inode’s i_gid field

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

const struct iattr *attr

the new attributes of inode

struct inode *inode

the inode to update

Description

Safely update inode’s i_gid field translating the vfsgid of any idmapped mount into the filesystem kgid.

void inode_fsuid_set(struct inode *inode, struct mnt_idmap *idmap)

initialize inode’s i_uid field with callers fsuid

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to initialize

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

Description

Initialize the i_uid field of inode. If the inode was found/created via an idmapped mount map the caller’s fsuid according to idmap.

void inode_fsgid_set(struct inode *inode, struct mnt_idmap *idmap)

initialize inode’s i_gid field with callers fsgid

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to initialize

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

Description

Initialize the i_gid field of inode. If the inode was found/created via an idmapped mount map the caller’s fsgid according to idmap.

bool fsuidgid_has_mapping(struct super_block *sb, struct mnt_idmap *idmap)

check whether caller’s fsuid/fsgid is mapped

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the superblock we want a mapping in

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the relevant mount

Description

Check whether the caller’s fsuid and fsgid have a valid mapping in the s_user_ns of the superblock sb. If the caller is on an idmapped mount map the caller’s fsuid and fsgid according to the idmap first.

Return

true if fsuid and fsgid is mapped, false if not.

struct timespec64 inode_set_ctime(struct inode *inode, time64_t sec, long nsec)

set the ctime in the inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode in which to set the ctime

time64_t sec

tv_sec value to set

long nsec

tv_nsec value to set

Description

Set the ctime in inode to { sec, nsec }

int __sb_write_started(const struct super_block *sb, int level)

check if sb freeze level is held

Parameters

const struct super_block *sb

the super we write to

int level

the freeze level

Description

  • > 0 - sb freeze level is held

  • 0 - sb freeze level is not held

  • < 0 - !CONFIG_LOCKDEP/LOCK_STATE_UNKNOWN

bool sb_write_started(const struct super_block *sb)

check if SB_FREEZE_WRITE is held

Parameters

const struct super_block *sb

the super we write to

Description

May be false positive with !CONFIG_LOCKDEP/LOCK_STATE_UNKNOWN.

bool sb_write_not_started(const struct super_block *sb)

check if SB_FREEZE_WRITE is not held

Parameters

const struct super_block *sb

the super we write to

Description

May be false positive with !CONFIG_LOCKDEP/LOCK_STATE_UNKNOWN.

bool file_write_started(const struct file *file)

check if SB_FREEZE_WRITE is held

Parameters

const struct file *file

the file we write to

Description

May be false positive with !CONFIG_LOCKDEP/LOCK_STATE_UNKNOWN. May be false positive with !S_ISREG, because file_start_write() has no effect on !S_ISREG.

bool file_write_not_started(const struct file *file)

check if SB_FREEZE_WRITE is not held

Parameters

const struct file *file

the file we write to

Description

May be false positive with !CONFIG_LOCKDEP/LOCK_STATE_UNKNOWN. May be false positive with !S_ISREG, because file_start_write() has no effect on !S_ISREG.

void sb_end_write(struct super_block *sb)

drop write access to a superblock

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the super we wrote to

Description

Decrement number of writers to the filesystem. Wake up possible waiters wanting to freeze the filesystem.

void sb_end_pagefault(struct super_block *sb)

drop write access to a superblock from a page fault

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the super we wrote to

Description

Decrement number of processes handling write page fault to the filesystem. Wake up possible waiters wanting to freeze the filesystem.

void sb_end_intwrite(struct super_block *sb)

drop write access to a superblock for internal fs purposes

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the super we wrote to

Description

Decrement fs-internal number of writers to the filesystem. Wake up possible waiters wanting to freeze the filesystem.

void sb_start_write(struct super_block *sb)

get write access to a superblock

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the super we write to

Description

When a process wants to write data or metadata to a file system (i.e. dirty a page or an inode), it should embed the operation in a sb_start_write() - sb_end_write() pair to get exclusion against file system freezing. This function increments number of writers preventing freezing. If the file system is already frozen, the function waits until the file system is thawed.

Since freeze protection behaves as a lock, users have to preserve ordering of freeze protection and other filesystem locks. Generally, freeze protection should be the outermost lock. In particular, we have:

sb_start_write

-> i_mutex (write path, truncate, directory ops, ...) -> s_umount (freeze_super, thaw_super)

void sb_start_pagefault(struct super_block *sb)

get write access to a superblock from a page fault

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the super we write to

Description

When a process starts handling write page fault, it should embed the operation into sb_start_pagefault() - sb_end_pagefault() pair to get exclusion against file system freezing. This is needed since the page fault is going to dirty a page. This function increments number of running page faults preventing freezing. If the file system is already frozen, the function waits until the file system is thawed.

Since page fault freeze protection behaves as a lock, users have to preserve ordering of freeze protection and other filesystem locks. It is advised to put sb_start_pagefault() close to mmap_lock in lock ordering. Page fault handling code implies lock dependency:

mmap_lock

-> sb_start_pagefault

void sb_start_intwrite(struct super_block *sb)

get write access to a superblock for internal fs purposes

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the super we write to

Description

This is the third level of protection against filesystem freezing. It is free for use by a filesystem. The only requirement is that it must rank below sb_start_pagefault.

For example filesystem can call sb_start_intwrite() when starting a transaction which somewhat eases handling of freezing for internal sources of filesystem changes (internal fs threads, discarding preallocation on file close, etc.).

struct renamedata

contains all information required for renaming

Definition:

struct renamedata {
    struct mnt_idmap *old_mnt_idmap;
    struct inode *old_dir;
    struct dentry *old_dentry;
    struct mnt_idmap *new_mnt_idmap;
    struct inode *new_dir;
    struct dentry *new_dentry;
    struct inode **delegated_inode;
    unsigned int flags;
};

Members

old_mnt_idmap

idmap of the old mount the inode was found from

old_dir

parent of source

old_dentry

source

new_mnt_idmap

idmap of the new mount the inode was found from

new_dir

parent of destination

new_dentry

destination

delegated_inode

returns an inode needing a delegation break

flags

rename flags

enum freeze_holder

holder of the freeze

Constants

FREEZE_HOLDER_KERNEL

kernel wants to freeze or thaw filesystem

FREEZE_HOLDER_USERSPACE

userspace wants to freeze or thaw filesystem

FREEZE_MAY_NEST

whether nesting freeze and thaw requests is allowed

Description

Indicate who the owner of the freeze or thaw request is and whether the freeze needs to be exclusive or can nest. Without FREEZE_MAY_NEST, multiple freeze and thaw requests from the same holder aren’t allowed. It is however allowed to hold a single FREEZE_HOLDER_USERSPACE and a single FREEZE_HOLDER_KERNEL freeze at the same time. This is relied upon by some filesystems during online repair or similar.

bool is_idmapped_mnt(const struct vfsmount *mnt)

check whether a mount is mapped

Parameters

const struct vfsmount *mnt

the mount to check

Description

If mnt has an non nop_mnt_idmap attached to it then mnt is mapped.

Return

true if mount is mapped, false if not.

void file_start_write(struct file *file)

get write access to a superblock for regular file io

Parameters

struct file *file

the file we want to write to

Description

This is a variant of sb_start_write() which is a noop on non-regualr file. Should be matched with a call to file_end_write().

void file_end_write(struct file *file)

drop write access to a superblock of a regular file

Parameters

struct file *file

the file we wrote to

Description

Should be matched with a call to file_start_write().

void kiocb_start_write(struct kiocb *iocb)

get write access to a superblock for async file io

Parameters

struct kiocb *iocb

the io context we want to submit the write with

Description

This is a variant of sb_start_write() for async io submission. Should be matched with a call to kiocb_end_write().

void kiocb_end_write(struct kiocb *iocb)

drop write access to a superblock after async file io

Parameters

struct kiocb *iocb

the io context we sumbitted the write with

Description

Should be matched with a call to kiocb_start_write().

bool is_dot_dotdot(const char *name, size_t len)

returns true only if name is “.” or “..”

Parameters

const char *name

file name to check

size_t len

length of file name, in bytes

void inode_dio_begin(struct inode *inode)

signal start of a direct I/O requests

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode the direct I/O happens on

Description

This is called once we’ve finished processing a direct I/O request, and is used to wake up callers waiting for direct I/O to be quiesced.

void inode_dio_end(struct inode *inode)

signal finish of a direct I/O requests

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode the direct I/O happens on

Description

This is called once we’ve finished processing a direct I/O request, and is used to wake up callers waiting for direct I/O to be quiesced.

The Directory Cache

void d_drop(struct dentry *dentry)

drop a dentry

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

dentry to drop

Description

d_drop() unhashes the entry from the parent dentry hashes, so that it won’t be found through a VFS lookup any more. Note that this is different from deleting the dentry - d_delete will try to mark the dentry negative if possible, giving a successful _negative_ lookup, while d_drop will just make the cache lookup fail.

d_drop() is used mainly for stuff that wants to invalidate a dentry for some reason (NFS timeouts or autofs deletes).

__d_drop requires dentry->d_lock

___d_drop doesn’t mark dentry as “unhashed” (dentry->d_hash.pprev will be LIST_POISON2, not NULL).

struct dentry *d_find_any_alias(struct inode *inode)

find any alias for a given inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to find an alias for

Description

If any aliases exist for the given inode, take and return a reference for one of them. If no aliases exist, return NULL.

struct dentry *d_find_alias(struct inode *inode)

grab a hashed alias of inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode in question

Description

If inode has a hashed alias, or is a directory and has any alias, acquire the reference to alias and return it. Otherwise return NULL. Notice that if inode is a directory there can be only one alias and it can be unhashed only if it has no children, or if it is the root of a filesystem, or if the directory was renamed and d_revalidate was the first vfs operation to notice.

If the inode has an IS_ROOT, DCACHE_DISCONNECTED alias, then prefer any other hashed alias over that one.

void shrink_dcache_sb(struct super_block *sb)

shrink dcache for a superblock

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

superblock

Description

Shrink the dcache for the specified super block. This is used to free the dcache before unmounting a file system.

int path_has_submounts(const struct path *parent)

check for mounts over a dentry in the current namespace.

Parameters

const struct path *parent

path to check.

Description

Return true if the parent or its subdirectories contain a mount point in the current namespace.

void shrink_dcache_parent(struct dentry *parent)

prune dcache

Parameters

struct dentry *parent

parent of entries to prune

Description

Prune the dcache to remove unused children of the parent dentry.

void d_invalidate(struct dentry *dentry)

detach submounts, prune dcache, and drop

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

dentry to invalidate (aka detach, prune and drop)

struct dentry *d_alloc(struct dentry *parent, const struct qstr *name)

allocate a dcache entry

Parameters

struct dentry * parent

parent of entry to allocate

const struct qstr *name

qstr of the name

Description

Allocates a dentry. It returns NULL if there is insufficient memory available. On a success the dentry is returned. The name passed in is copied and the copy passed in may be reused after this call.

void d_instantiate(struct dentry *entry, struct inode *inode)

fill in inode information for a dentry

Parameters

struct dentry *entry

dentry to complete

struct inode * inode

inode to attach to this dentry

Description

Fill in inode information in the entry.

This turns negative dentries into productive full members of society.

NOTE! This assumes that the inode count has been incremented (or otherwise set) by the caller to indicate that it is now in use by the dcache.

struct dentry *d_obtain_alias(struct inode *inode)

find or allocate a DISCONNECTED dentry for a given inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to allocate the dentry for

Description

Obtain a dentry for an inode resulting from NFS filehandle conversion or similar open by handle operations. The returned dentry may be anonymous, or may have a full name (if the inode was already in the cache).

When called on a directory inode, we must ensure that the inode only ever has one dentry. If a dentry is found, that is returned instead of allocating a new one.

On successful return, the reference to the inode has been transferred to the dentry. In case of an error the reference on the inode is released. To make it easier to use in export operations a NULL or IS_ERR inode may be passed in and the error will be propagated to the return value, with a NULL inode replaced by ERR_PTR(-ESTALE).

struct dentry *d_obtain_root(struct inode *inode)

find or allocate a dentry for a given inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to allocate the dentry for

Description

Obtain an IS_ROOT dentry for the root of a filesystem.

We must ensure that directory inodes only ever have one dentry. If a dentry is found, that is returned instead of allocating a new one.

On successful return, the reference to the inode has been transferred to the dentry. In case of an error the reference on the inode is released. A NULL or IS_ERR inode may be passed in and will be the error will be propagate to the return value, with a NULL inode replaced by ERR_PTR(-ESTALE).

struct dentry *d_add_ci(struct dentry *dentry, struct inode *inode, struct qstr *name)

lookup or allocate new dentry with case-exact name

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

the negative dentry that was passed to the parent’s lookup func

struct inode *inode

the inode case-insensitive lookup has found

struct qstr *name

the case-exact name to be associated with the returned dentry

Description

This is to avoid filling the dcache with case-insensitive names to the same inode, only the actual correct case is stored in the dcache for case-insensitive filesystems.

For a case-insensitive lookup match and if the case-exact dentry already exists in the dcache, use it and return it.

If no entry exists with the exact case name, allocate new dentry with the exact case, and return the spliced entry.

bool d_same_name(const struct dentry *dentry, const struct dentry *parent, const struct qstr *name)

compare dentry name with case-exact name

Parameters

const struct dentry *dentry

the negative dentry that was passed to the parent’s lookup func

const struct dentry *parent

parent dentry

const struct qstr *name

the case-exact name to be associated with the returned dentry

Return

true if names are same, or false

struct dentry *d_lookup(const struct dentry *parent, const struct qstr *name)

search for a dentry

Parameters

const struct dentry *parent

parent dentry

const struct qstr *name

qstr of name we wish to find

Return

dentry, or NULL

Description

d_lookup searches the children of the parent dentry for the name in question. If the dentry is found its reference count is incremented and the dentry is returned. The caller must use dput to free the entry when it has finished using it. NULL is returned if the dentry does not exist.

struct dentry *d_hash_and_lookup(struct dentry *dir, struct qstr *name)

hash the qstr then search for a dentry

Parameters

struct dentry *dir

Directory to search in

struct qstr *name

qstr of name we wish to find

Description

On lookup failure NULL is returned; on bad name - ERR_PTR(-error)

void d_delete(struct dentry *dentry)

delete a dentry

Parameters

struct dentry * dentry

The dentry to delete

Description

Turn the dentry into a negative dentry if possible, otherwise remove it from the hash queues so it can be deleted later

void d_rehash(struct dentry *entry)

add an entry back to the hash

Parameters

struct dentry * entry

dentry to add to the hash

Description

Adds a dentry to the hash according to its name.

void d_add(struct dentry *entry, struct inode *inode)

add dentry to hash queues

Parameters

struct dentry *entry

dentry to add

struct inode *inode

The inode to attach to this dentry

Description

This adds the entry to the hash queues and initializes inode. The entry was actually filled in earlier during d_alloc().

struct dentry *d_exact_alias(struct dentry *entry, struct inode *inode)

find and hash an exact unhashed alias

Parameters

struct dentry *entry

dentry to add

struct inode *inode

The inode to go with this dentry

Description

If an unhashed dentry with the same name/parent and desired inode already exists, hash and return it. Otherwise, return NULL.

Parent directory should be locked.

struct dentry *d_splice_alias(struct inode *inode, struct dentry *dentry)

splice a disconnected dentry into the tree if one exists

Parameters

struct inode *inode

the inode which may have a disconnected dentry

struct dentry *dentry

a negative dentry which we want to point to the inode.

Description

If inode is a directory and has an IS_ROOT alias, then d_move that in place of the given dentry and return it, else simply d_add the inode to the dentry and return NULL.

If a non-IS_ROOT directory is found, the filesystem is corrupt, and we should error out: directories can’t have multiple aliases.

This is needed in the lookup routine of any filesystem that is exportable (via knfsd) so that we can build dcache paths to directories effectively.

If a dentry was found and moved, then it is returned. Otherwise NULL is returned. This matches the expected return value of ->lookup.

Cluster filesystems may call this function with a negative, hashed dentry. In that case, we know that the inode will be a regular file, and also this will only occur during atomic_open. So we need to check for the dentry being already hashed only in the final case.

bool is_subdir(struct dentry *new_dentry, struct dentry *old_dentry)

is new dentry a subdirectory of old_dentry

Parameters

struct dentry *new_dentry

new dentry

struct dentry *old_dentry

old dentry

Description

Returns true if new_dentry is a subdirectory of the parent (at any depth). Returns false otherwise. Caller must ensure that “new_dentry” is pinned before calling is_subdir()

struct dentry *dget_dlock(struct dentry *dentry)

get a reference to a dentry

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

dentry to get a reference to

Description

Given a live dentry, increment the reference count and return the dentry. Caller must hold dentry->d_lock. Making sure that dentry is alive is caller’s resonsibility. There are many conditions sufficient to guarantee that; e.g. anything with non-negative refcount is alive, so’s anything hashed, anything positive, anyone’s parent, etc.

struct dentry *dget(struct dentry *dentry)

get a reference to a dentry

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

dentry to get a reference to

Description

Given a dentry or NULL pointer increment the reference count if appropriate and return the dentry. A dentry will not be destroyed when it has references. Conversely, a dentry with no references can disappear for any number of reasons, starting with memory pressure. In other words, that primitive is used to clone an existing reference; using it on something with zero refcount is a bug.

NOTE

it will spin if dentry->d_lock is held. From the deadlock avoidance point of view it is equivalent to spin_lock()/increment refcount/spin_unlock(), so calling it under dentry->d_lock is always a bug; so’s calling it under ->d_lock on any of its descendents.

int d_unhashed(const struct dentry *dentry)

is dentry hashed

Parameters

const struct dentry *dentry

entry to check

Description

Returns true if the dentry passed is not currently hashed.

bool d_really_is_negative(const struct dentry *dentry)

Determine if a dentry is really negative (ignoring fallthroughs)

Parameters

const struct dentry *dentry

The dentry in question

Description

Returns true if the dentry represents either an absent name or a name that doesn’t map to an inode (ie. ->d_inode is NULL). The dentry could represent a true miss, a whiteout that isn’t represented by a 0,0 chardev or a fallthrough marker in an opaque directory.

Note! (1) This should be used only by a filesystem to examine its own dentries. It should not be used to look at some other filesystem’s dentries. (2) It should also be used in combination with d_inode() to get the inode. (3) The dentry may have something attached to ->d_lower and the type field of the flags may be set to something other than miss or whiteout.

bool d_really_is_positive(const struct dentry *dentry)

Determine if a dentry is really positive (ignoring fallthroughs)

Parameters

const struct dentry *dentry

The dentry in question

Description

Returns true if the dentry represents a name that maps to an inode (ie. ->d_inode is not NULL). The dentry might still represent a whiteout if that is represented on medium as a 0,0 chardev.

Note! (1) This should be used only by a filesystem to examine its own dentries. It should not be used to look at some other filesystem’s dentries. (2) It should also be used in combination with d_inode() to get the inode.

struct inode *d_inode(const struct dentry *dentry)

Get the actual inode of this dentry

Parameters

const struct dentry *dentry

The dentry to query

Description

This is the helper normal filesystems should use to get at their own inodes in their own dentries and ignore the layering superimposed upon them.

struct inode *d_inode_rcu(const struct dentry *dentry)

Get the actual inode of this dentry with READ_ONCE()

Parameters

const struct dentry *dentry

The dentry to query

Description

This is the helper normal filesystems should use to get at their own inodes in their own dentries and ignore the layering superimposed upon them.

struct inode *d_backing_inode(const struct dentry *upper)

Get upper or lower inode we should be using

Parameters

const struct dentry *upper

The upper layer

Description

This is the helper that should be used to get at the inode that will be used if this dentry were to be opened as a file. The inode may be on the upper dentry or it may be on a lower dentry pinned by the upper.

Normal filesystems should not use this to access their own inodes.

struct dentry *d_real(struct dentry *dentry, enum d_real_type type)

Return the real dentry

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

the dentry to query

enum d_real_type type

the type of real dentry (data or metadata)

Description

If dentry is on a union/overlay, then return the underlying, real dentry. Otherwise return the dentry itself.

See also: Overview of the Linux Virtual File System

struct inode *d_real_inode(const struct dentry *dentry)

Return the real inode hosting the data

Parameters

const struct dentry *dentry

The dentry to query

Description

If dentry is on a union/overlay, then return the underlying, real inode. Otherwise return d_inode().

Inode Handling

int inode_init_always(struct super_block *sb, struct inode *inode)

perform inode structure initialisation

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

superblock inode belongs to

struct inode *inode

inode to initialise

Description

These are initializations that need to be done on every inode allocation as the fields are not initialised by slab allocation.

directly drop an inode’s link count

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode

Description

This is a low-level filesystem helper to replace any direct filesystem manipulation of i_nlink. In cases where we are attempting to track writes to the filesystem, a decrement to zero means an imminent write when the file is truncated and actually unlinked on the filesystem.

directly zero an inode’s link count

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode

Description

This is a low-level filesystem helper to replace any direct filesystem manipulation of i_nlink. See drop_nlink() for why we care about i_nlink hitting zero.

directly set an inode’s link count

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode

unsigned int nlink

new nlink (should be non-zero)

Description

This is a low-level filesystem helper to replace any direct filesystem manipulation of i_nlink.

directly increment an inode’s link count

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode

Description

This is a low-level filesystem helper to replace any direct filesystem manipulation of i_nlink. Currently, it is only here for parity with dec_nlink().

void inode_sb_list_add(struct inode *inode)

add inode to the superblock list of inodes

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to add

void __insert_inode_hash(struct inode *inode, unsigned long hashval)

hash an inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

unhashed inode

unsigned long hashval

unsigned long value used to locate this object in the inode_hashtable.

Add an inode to the inode hash for this superblock.

void __remove_inode_hash(struct inode *inode)

remove an inode from the hash

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to unhash

Remove an inode from the superblock.

void evict_inodes(struct super_block *sb)

evict all evictable inodes for a superblock

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

superblock to operate on

Description

Make sure that no inodes with zero refcount are retained. This is called by superblock shutdown after having SB_ACTIVE flag removed, so any inode reaching zero refcount during or after that call will be immediately evicted.

struct inode *new_inode(struct super_block *sb)

obtain an inode

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

superblock

Allocates a new inode for given superblock. The default gfp_mask for allocations related to inode->i_mapping is GFP_HIGHUSER_MOVABLE. If HIGHMEM pages are unsuitable or it is known that pages allocated for the page cache are not reclaimable or migratable, mapping_set_gfp_mask() must be called with suitable flags on the newly created inode’s mapping

void unlock_new_inode(struct inode *inode)

clear the I_NEW state and wake up any waiters

Parameters

struct inode *inode

new inode to unlock

Description

Called when the inode is fully initialised to clear the new state of the inode and wake up anyone waiting for the inode to finish initialisation.

void lock_two_nondirectories(struct inode *inode1, struct inode *inode2)

take two i_mutexes on non-directory objects

Parameters

struct inode *inode1

first inode to lock

struct inode *inode2

second inode to lock

Description

Lock any non-NULL argument. Passed objects must not be directories. Zero, one or two objects may be locked by this function.

void unlock_two_nondirectories(struct inode *inode1, struct inode *inode2)

release locks from lock_two_nondirectories()

Parameters

struct inode *inode1

first inode to unlock

struct inode *inode2

second inode to unlock

struct inode *inode_insert5(struct inode *inode, unsigned long hashval, int (*test)(struct inode*, void*), int (*set)(struct inode*, void*), void *data)

obtain an inode from a mounted file system

Parameters

struct inode *inode

pre-allocated inode to use for insert to cache

unsigned long hashval

hash value (usually inode number) to get

int (*test)(struct inode *, void *)

callback used for comparisons between inodes

int (*set)(struct inode *, void *)

callback used to initialize a new struct inode

void *data

opaque data pointer to pass to test and set

Description

Search for the inode specified by hashval and data in the inode cache, and if present it is return it with an increased reference count. This is a variant of iget5_locked() for callers that don’t want to fail on memory allocation of inode.

If the inode is not in cache, insert the pre-allocated inode to cache and return it locked, hashed, and with the I_NEW flag set. The file system gets to fill it in before unlocking it via unlock_new_inode().

Note both test and set are called with the inode_hash_lock held, so can’t sleep.

struct inode *iget5_locked(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long hashval, int (*test)(struct inode*, void*), int (*set)(struct inode*, void*), void *data)

obtain an inode from a mounted file system

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

super block of file system

unsigned long hashval

hash value (usually inode number) to get

int (*test)(struct inode *, void *)

callback used for comparisons between inodes

int (*set)(struct inode *, void *)

callback used to initialize a new struct inode

void *data

opaque data pointer to pass to test and set

Description

Search for the inode specified by hashval and data in the inode cache, and if present it is return it with an increased reference count. This is a generalized version of iget_locked() for file systems where the inode number is not sufficient for unique identification of an inode.

If the inode is not in cache, allocate a new inode and return it locked, hashed, and with the I_NEW flag set. The file system gets to fill it in before unlocking it via unlock_new_inode().

Note both test and set are called with the inode_hash_lock held, so can’t sleep.

struct inode *iget_locked(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long ino)

obtain an inode from a mounted file system

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

super block of file system

unsigned long ino

inode number to get

Description

Search for the inode specified by ino in the inode cache and if present return it with an increased reference count. This is for file systems where the inode number is sufficient for unique identification of an inode.

If the inode is not in cache, allocate a new inode and return it locked, hashed, and with the I_NEW flag set. The file system gets to fill it in before unlocking it via unlock_new_inode().

ino_t iunique(struct super_block *sb, ino_t max_reserved)

get a unique inode number

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

superblock

ino_t max_reserved

highest reserved inode number

Obtain an inode number that is unique on the system for a given superblock. This is used by file systems that have no natural permanent inode numbering system. An inode number is returned that is higher than the reserved limit but unique.

BUGS: With a large number of inodes live on the file system this function currently becomes quite slow.

struct inode *ilookup5_nowait(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long hashval, int (*test)(struct inode*, void*), void *data)

search for an inode in the inode cache

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

super block of file system to search

unsigned long hashval

hash value (usually inode number) to search for

int (*test)(struct inode *, void *)

callback used for comparisons between inodes

void *data

opaque data pointer to pass to test

Description

Search for the inode specified by hashval and data in the inode cache. If the inode is in the cache, the inode is returned with an incremented reference count.

Note2: test is called with the inode_hash_lock held, so can’t sleep.

Note

I_NEW is not waited upon so you have to be very careful what you do with the returned inode. You probably should be using ilookup5() instead.

struct inode *ilookup5(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long hashval, int (*test)(struct inode*, void*), void *data)

search for an inode in the inode cache

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

super block of file system to search

unsigned long hashval

hash value (usually inode number) to search for

int (*test)(struct inode *, void *)

callback used for comparisons between inodes

void *data

opaque data pointer to pass to test

Description

Search for the inode specified by hashval and data in the inode cache, and if the inode is in the cache, return the inode with an incremented reference count. Waits on I_NEW before returning the inode. returned with an incremented reference count.

This is a generalized version of ilookup() for file systems where the inode number is not sufficient for unique identification of an inode.

Note

test is called with the inode_hash_lock held, so can’t sleep.

struct inode *ilookup(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long ino)

search for an inode in the inode cache

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

super block of file system to search

unsigned long ino

inode number to search for

Description

Search for the inode ino in the inode cache, and if the inode is in the cache, the inode is returned with an incremented reference count.

struct inode *find_inode_nowait(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long hashval, int (*match)(struct inode*, unsigned long, void*), void *data)

find an inode in the inode cache

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

super block of file system to search

unsigned long hashval

hash value (usually inode number) to search for

int (*match)(struct inode *, unsigned long, void *)

callback used for comparisons between inodes

void *data

opaque data pointer to pass to match

Description

Search for the inode specified by hashval and data in the inode cache, where the helper function match will return 0 if the inode does not match, 1 if the inode does match, and -1 if the search should be stopped. The match function must be responsible for taking the i_lock spin_lock and checking i_state for an inode being freed or being initialized, and incrementing the reference count before returning 1. It also must not sleep, since it is called with the inode_hash_lock spinlock held.

This is a even more generalized version of ilookup5() when the function must never block --- find_inode() can block in __wait_on_freeing_inode() --- or when the caller can not increment the reference count because the resulting iput() might cause an inode eviction. The tradeoff is that the match funtion must be very carefully implemented.

struct inode *find_inode_rcu(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long hashval, int (*test)(struct inode*, void*), void *data)

find an inode in the inode cache

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

Super block of file system to search

unsigned long hashval

Key to hash

int (*test)(struct inode *, void *)

Function to test match on an inode

void *data

Data for test function

Description

Search for the inode specified by hashval and data in the inode cache, where the helper function test will return 0 if the inode does not match and 1 if it does. The test function must be responsible for taking the i_lock spin_lock and checking i_state for an inode being freed or being initialized.

If successful, this will return the inode for which the test function returned 1 and NULL otherwise.

The test function is not permitted to take a ref on any inode presented. It is also not permitted to sleep.

The caller must hold the RCU read lock.

struct inode *find_inode_by_ino_rcu(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long ino)

Find an inode in the inode cache

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

Super block of file system to search

unsigned long ino

The inode number to match

Description

Search for the inode specified by hashval and data in the inode cache, where the helper function test will return 0 if the inode does not match and 1 if it does. The test function must be responsible for taking the i_lock spin_lock and checking i_state for an inode being freed or being initialized.

If successful, this will return the inode for which the test function returned 1 and NULL otherwise.

The test function is not permitted to take a ref on any inode presented. It is also not permitted to sleep.

The caller must hold the RCU read lock.

void iput(struct inode *inode)

put an inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to put

Puts an inode, dropping its usage count. If the inode use count hits zero, the inode is then freed and may also be destroyed.

Consequently, iput() can sleep.

int bmap(struct inode *inode, sector_t *block)

find a block number in a file

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode owning the block number being requested

sector_t *block

pointer containing the block to find

Replaces the value in *block with the block number on the device holding corresponding to the requested block number in the file. That is, asked for block 4 of inode 1 the function will replace the 4 in *block, with disk block relative to the disk start that holds that block of the file.

Returns -EINVAL in case of error, 0 otherwise. If mapping falls into a hole, returns 0 and *block is also set to 0.

int inode_update_timestamps(struct inode *inode, int flags)

update the timestamps on the inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to be updated

int flags

S_* flags that needed to be updated

Description

The update_time function is called when an inode’s timestamps need to be updated for a read or write operation. This function handles updating the actual timestamps. It’s up to the caller to ensure that the inode is marked dirty appropriately.

In the case where any of S_MTIME, S_CTIME, or S_VERSION need to be updated, attempt to update all three of them. S_ATIME updates can be handled independently of the rest.

Returns a set of S_* flags indicating which values changed.

int generic_update_time(struct inode *inode, int flags)

update the timestamps on the inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to be updated

int flags

S_* flags that needed to be updated

Description

The update_time function is called when an inode’s timestamps need to be updated for a read or write operation. In the case where any of S_MTIME, S_CTIME, or S_VERSION need to be updated we attempt to update all three of them. S_ATIME updates can be handled done independently of the rest.

Returns a S_* mask indicating which fields were updated.

int file_remove_privs(struct file *file)

remove special file privileges (suid, capabilities)

Parameters

struct file *file

file to remove privileges from

Description

When file is modified by a write or truncation ensure that special file privileges are removed.

Return

0 on success, negative errno on failure.

int file_update_time(struct file *file)

update mtime and ctime time

Parameters

struct file *file

file accessed

Description

Update the mtime and ctime members of an inode and mark the inode for writeback. Note that this function is meant exclusively for usage in the file write path of filesystems, and filesystems may choose to explicitly ignore updates via this function with the _NOCMTIME inode flag, e.g. for network filesystem where these imestamps are handled by the server. This can return an error for file systems who need to allocate space in order to update an inode.

Return

0 on success, negative errno on failure.

int file_modified(struct file *file)

handle mandated vfs changes when modifying a file

Parameters

struct file *file

file that was modified

Description

When file has been modified ensure that special file privileges are removed and time settings are updated.

Context

Caller must hold the file’s inode lock.

Return

0 on success, negative errno on failure.

int kiocb_modified(struct kiocb *iocb)

handle mandated vfs changes when modifying a file

Parameters

struct kiocb *iocb

iocb that was modified

Description

When file has been modified ensure that special file privileges are removed and time settings are updated.

Context

Caller must hold the file’s inode lock.

Return

0 on success, negative errno on failure.

void inode_init_owner(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *inode, const struct inode *dir, umode_t mode)

Init uid,gid,mode for new inode according to posix standards

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was created from

struct inode *inode

New inode

const struct inode *dir

Directory inode

umode_t mode

mode of the new inode

Description

If the inode has been created through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions and initializing i_uid and i_gid. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

bool inode_owner_or_capable(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct inode *inode)

check current task permissions to inode

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

const struct inode *inode

inode being checked

Description

Return true if current either has CAP_FOWNER in a namespace with the inode owner uid mapped, or owns the file.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

void inode_dio_wait(struct inode *inode)

wait for outstanding DIO requests to finish

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to wait for

Description

Waits for all pending direct I/O requests to finish so that we can proceed with a truncate or equivalent operation.

Must be called under a lock that serializes taking new references to i_dio_count, usually by inode->i_mutex.

struct timespec64 timestamp_truncate(struct timespec64 t, struct inode *inode)

Truncate timespec to a granularity

Parameters

struct timespec64 t

Timespec

struct inode *inode

inode being updated

Description

Truncate a timespec to the granularity supported by the fs containing the inode. Always rounds down. gran must not be 0 nor greater than a second (NSEC_PER_SEC, or 10^9 ns).

struct timespec64 current_time(struct inode *inode)

Return FS time

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode.

Description

Return the current time truncated to the time granularity supported by the fs.

Note that inode and inode->sb cannot be NULL. Otherwise, the function warns and returns time without truncation.

struct timespec64 inode_set_ctime_current(struct inode *inode)

set the ctime to current_time

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode

Description

Set the inode->i_ctime to the current value for the inode. Returns the current value that was assigned to i_ctime.

umode_t mode_strip_sgid(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct inode *dir, umode_t mode)

handle the sgid bit for non-directories

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was created from

const struct inode *dir

parent directory inode

umode_t mode

mode of the file to be created in dir

Description

If the mode of the new file has both the S_ISGID and S_IXGRP bit raised and dir has the S_ISGID bit raised ensure that the caller is either in the group of the parent directory or they have CAP_FSETID in their user namespace and are privileged over the parent directory. In all other cases, strip the S_ISGID bit from mode.

Return

the new mode to use for the file

void make_bad_inode(struct inode *inode)

mark an inode bad due to an I/O error

Parameters

struct inode *inode

Inode to mark bad

When an inode cannot be read due to a media or remote network failure this function makes the inode “bad” and causes I/O operations on it to fail from this point on.

bool is_bad_inode(struct inode *inode)

is an inode errored

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to test

Returns true if the inode in question has been marked as bad.

void iget_failed(struct inode *inode)

Mark an under-construction inode as dead and release it

Parameters

struct inode *inode

The inode to discard

Description

Mark an under-construction inode as dead and release it.

Registration and Superblocks

void deactivate_locked_super(struct super_block *s)

drop an active reference to superblock

Parameters

struct super_block *s

superblock to deactivate

Drops an active reference to superblock, converting it into a temporary one if there is no other active references left. In that case we tell fs driver to shut it down and drop the temporary reference we had just acquired.

Caller holds exclusive lock on superblock; that lock is released.

void deactivate_super(struct super_block *s)

drop an active reference to superblock

Parameters

struct super_block *s

superblock to deactivate

Variant of deactivate_locked_super(), except that superblock is not locked by caller. If we are going to drop the final active reference, lock will be acquired prior to that.

void retire_super(struct super_block *sb)

prevents superblock from being reused

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

superblock to retire

The function marks superblock to be ignored in superblock test, which prevents it from being reused for any new mounts. If the superblock has a private bdi, it also unregisters it, but doesn’t reduce the refcount of the superblock to prevent potential races. The refcount is reduced by generic_shutdown_super(). The function can not be called concurrently with generic_shutdown_super(). It is safe to call the function multiple times, subsequent calls have no effect.

The marker will affect the re-use only for block-device-based superblocks. Other superblocks will still get marked if this function is used, but that will not affect their reusability.

void generic_shutdown_super(struct super_block *sb)

common helper for ->kill_sb()

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

superblock to kill

generic_shutdown_super() does all fs-independent work on superblock shutdown. Typical ->kill_sb() should pick all fs-specific objects that need destruction out of superblock, call generic_shutdown_super() and release aforementioned objects. Note: dentries and inodes _are_ taken care of and do not need specific handling.

Upon calling this function, the filesystem may no longer alter or rearrange the set of dentries belonging to this super_block, nor may it change the attachments of dentries to inodes.

struct super_block *sget_fc(struct fs_context *fc, int (*test)(struct super_block*, struct fs_context*), int (*set)(struct super_block*, struct fs_context*))

Find or create a superblock

Parameters

struct fs_context *fc

Filesystem context.

int (*test)(struct super_block *, struct fs_context *)

Comparison callback

int (*set)(struct super_block *, struct fs_context *)

Setup callback

Description

Create a new superblock or find an existing one.

The test callback is used to find a matching existing superblock. Whether or not the requested parameters in fc are taken into account is specific to the test callback that is used. They may even be completely ignored.

If an extant superblock is matched, it will be returned unless:

  1. the namespace the filesystem context fc and the extant superblock’s namespace differ

  2. the filesystem context fc has requested that reusing an extant superblock is not allowed

In both cases EBUSY will be returned.

If no match is made, a new superblock will be allocated and basic initialisation will be performed (s_type, s_fs_info and s_id will be set and the set callback will be invoked), the superblock will be published and it will be returned in a partially constructed state with SB_BORN and SB_ACTIVE as yet unset.

Return

On success, an extant or newly created superblock is

returned. On failure an error pointer is returned.

struct super_block *sget(struct file_system_type *type, int (*test)(struct super_block*, void*), int (*set)(struct super_block*, void*), int flags, void *data)

find or create a superblock

Parameters

struct file_system_type *type

filesystem type superblock should belong to

int (*test)(struct super_block *,void *)

comparison callback

int (*set)(struct super_block *,void *)

setup callback

int flags

mount flags

void *data

argument to each of them

void iterate_supers_type(struct file_system_type *type, void (*f)(struct super_block*, void*), void *arg)

call function for superblocks of given type

Parameters

struct file_system_type *type

fs type

void (*f)(struct super_block *, void *)

function to call

void *arg

argument to pass to it

Scans the superblock list and calls given function, passing it locked superblock and given argument.

int get_anon_bdev(dev_t *p)

Allocate a block device for filesystems which don’t have one.

Parameters

dev_t *p

Pointer to a dev_t.

Description

Filesystems which don’t use real block devices can call this function to allocate a virtual block device.

Context

Any context. Frequently called while holding sb_lock.

Return

0 on success, -EMFILE if there are no anonymous bdevs left or -ENOMEM if memory allocation failed.

struct super_block *sget_dev(struct fs_context *fc, dev_t dev)

Find or create a superblock by device number

Parameters

struct fs_context *fc

Filesystem context.

dev_t dev

device number

Description

Find or create a superblock using the provided device number that will be stored in fc->sget_key.

If an extant superblock is matched, then that will be returned with an elevated reference count that the caller must transfer or discard.

If no match is made, a new superblock will be allocated and basic initialisation will be performed (s_type, s_fs_info, s_id, s_dev will be set). The superblock will be published and it will be returned in a partially constructed state with SB_BORN and SB_ACTIVE as yet unset.

Return

an existing or newly created superblock on success, an error

pointer on failure.

int get_tree_bdev(struct fs_context *fc, int (*fill_super)(struct super_block*, struct fs_context*))

Get a superblock based on a single block device

Parameters

struct fs_context *fc

The filesystem context holding the parameters

int (*fill_super)(struct super_block *, struct fs_context *)

Helper to initialise a new superblock

int vfs_get_tree(struct fs_context *fc)

Get the mountable root

Parameters

struct fs_context *fc

The superblock configuration context.

Description

The filesystem is invoked to get or create a superblock which can then later be used for mounting. The filesystem places a pointer to the root to be used for mounting in fc->root.

int freeze_super(struct super_block *sb, enum freeze_holder who)

lock the filesystem and force it into a consistent state

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the super to lock

enum freeze_holder who

context that wants to freeze

Description

Syncs the super to make sure the filesystem is consistent and calls the fs’s freeze_fs. Subsequent calls to this without first thawing the fs may return -EBUSY.

who should be: * FREEZE_HOLDER_USERSPACE if userspace wants to freeze the fs; * FREEZE_HOLDER_KERNEL if the kernel wants to freeze the fs. * FREEZE_MAY_NEST whether nesting freeze and thaw requests is allowed.

The who argument distinguishes between the kernel and userspace trying to freeze the filesystem. Although there cannot be multiple kernel freezes or multiple userspace freezes in effect at any given time, the kernel and userspace can both hold a filesystem frozen. The filesystem remains frozen until there are no kernel or userspace freezes in effect.

A filesystem may hold multiple devices and thus a filesystems may be frozen through the block layer via multiple block devices. In this case the request is marked as being allowed to nest by passing FREEZE_MAY_NEST. The filesystem remains frozen until all block devices are unfrozen. If multiple freezes are attempted without FREEZE_MAY_NEST -EBUSY will be returned.

During this function, sb->s_writers.frozen goes through these values:

SB_UNFROZEN: File system is normal, all writes progress as usual.

SB_FREEZE_WRITE: The file system is in the process of being frozen. New writes should be blocked, though page faults are still allowed. We wait for all writes to complete and then proceed to the next stage.

SB_FREEZE_PAGEFAULT: Freezing continues. Now also page faults are blocked but internal fs threads can still modify the filesystem (although they should not dirty new pages or inodes), writeback can run etc. After waiting for all running page faults we sync the filesystem which will clean all dirty pages and inodes (no new dirty pages or inodes can be created when sync is running).

SB_FREEZE_FS: The file system is frozen. Now all internal sources of fs modification are blocked (e.g. XFS preallocation truncation on inode reclaim). This is usually implemented by blocking new transactions for filesystems that have them and need this additional guard. After all internal writers are finished we call ->freeze_fs() to finish filesystem freezing. Then we transition to SB_FREEZE_COMPLETE state. This state is mostly auxiliary for filesystems to verify they do not modify frozen fs.

sb->s_writers.frozen is protected by sb->s_umount.

Return

If the freeze was successful zero is returned. If the freeze

failed a negative error code is returned.

int thaw_super(struct super_block *sb, enum freeze_holder who)
  • unlock filesystem

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the super to thaw

enum freeze_holder who

context that wants to freeze

Description

Unlocks the filesystem and marks it writeable again after freeze_super() if there are no remaining freezes on the filesystem.

who should be: * FREEZE_HOLDER_USERSPACE if userspace wants to thaw the fs; * FREEZE_HOLDER_KERNEL if the kernel wants to thaw the fs. * FREEZE_MAY_NEST whether nesting freeze and thaw requests is allowed

A filesystem may hold multiple devices and thus a filesystems may have been frozen through the block layer via multiple block devices. The filesystem remains frozen until all block devices are unfrozen.

File Locks

bool locks_owner_has_blockers(struct file_lock_context *flctx, fl_owner_t owner)

Check for blocking lock requests

Parameters

struct file_lock_context *flctx

file lock context

fl_owner_t owner

lock owner

Description

Return values:

true: owner has at least one blocker false: owner has no blockers

int locks_delete_block(struct file_lock *waiter)

stop waiting for a file lock

Parameters

struct file_lock *waiter

the lock which was waiting

lockd/nfsd need to disconnect the lock while working on it.

int posix_lock_file(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl, struct file_lock *conflock)

Apply a POSIX-style lock to a file

Parameters

struct file *filp

The file to apply the lock to

struct file_lock *fl

The lock to be applied

struct file_lock *conflock

Place to return a copy of the conflicting lock, if found.

Description

Add a POSIX style lock to a file. We merge adjacent & overlapping locks whenever possible. POSIX locks are sorted by owner task, then by starting address

Note that if called with an FL_EXISTS argument, the caller may determine whether or not a lock was successfully freed by testing the return value for -ENOENT.

int __break_lease(struct inode *inode, unsigned int mode, unsigned int type)

revoke all outstanding leases on file

Parameters

struct inode *inode

the inode of the file to return

unsigned int mode

O_RDONLY: break only write leases; O_WRONLY or O_RDWR: break all leases

unsigned int type

FL_LEASE: break leases and delegations; FL_DELEG: break only delegations

break_lease (inlined for speed) has checked there already is at least some kind of lock (maybe a lease) on this file. Leases are broken on a call to open() or truncate(). This function can sleep unless you specified O_NONBLOCK to your open().

void lease_get_mtime(struct inode *inode, struct timespec64 *time)

update modified time of an inode with exclusive lease

Parameters

struct inode *inode

the inode

struct timespec64 *time

pointer to a timespec which contains the last modified time

Description

This is to force NFS clients to flush their caches for files with exclusive leases. The justification is that if someone has an exclusive lease, then they could be modifying it.

int generic_setlease(struct file *filp, int arg, struct file_lease **flp, void **priv)

sets a lease on an open file

Parameters

struct file *filp

file pointer

int arg

type of lease to obtain

struct file_lease **flp

input - file_lock to use, output - file_lock inserted

void **priv

private data for lm_setup (may be NULL if lm_setup doesn’t require it)

The (input) flp->fl_lmops->lm_break function is required by break_lease().

int vfs_setlease(struct file *filp, int arg, struct file_lease **lease, void **priv)

sets a lease on an open file

Parameters

struct file *filp

file pointer

int arg

type of lease to obtain

struct file_lease **lease

file_lock to use when adding a lease

void **priv

private info for lm_setup when adding a lease (may be NULL if lm_setup doesn’t require it)

Description

Call this to establish a lease on the file. The “lease” argument is not used for F_UNLCK requests and may be NULL. For commands that set or alter an existing lease, the (*lease)->fl_lmops->lm_break operation must be set; if not, this function will return -ENOLCK (and generate a scary-looking stack trace).

The “priv” pointer is passed directly to the lm_setup function as-is. It may be NULL if the lm_setup operation doesn’t require it.

int locks_lock_inode_wait(struct inode *inode, struct file_lock *fl)

Apply a lock to an inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode of the file to apply to

struct file_lock *fl

The lock to be applied

Description

Apply a POSIX or FLOCK style lock request to an inode.

int vfs_test_lock(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl)

test file byte range lock

Parameters

struct file *filp

The file to test lock for

struct file_lock *fl

The lock to test; also used to hold result

Description

Returns -ERRNO on failure. Indicates presence of conflicting lock by setting conf->fl_type to something other than F_UNLCK.

int vfs_lock_file(struct file *filp, unsigned int cmd, struct file_lock *fl, struct file_lock *conf)

file byte range lock

Parameters

struct file *filp

The file to apply the lock to

unsigned int cmd

type of locking operation (F_SETLK, F_GETLK, etc.)

struct file_lock *fl

The lock to be applied

struct file_lock *conf

Place to return a copy of the conflicting lock, if found.

Description

A caller that doesn’t care about the conflicting lock may pass NULL as the final argument.

If the filesystem defines a private ->lock() method, then conf will be left unchanged; so a caller that cares should initialize it to some acceptable default.

To avoid blocking kernel daemons, such as lockd, that need to acquire POSIX locks, the ->lock() interface may return asynchronously, before the lock has been granted or denied by the underlying filesystem, if (and only if) lm_grant is set. Additionally EXPORT_OP_ASYNC_LOCK in export_operations flags need to be set.

Callers expecting ->lock() to return asynchronously will only use F_SETLK, not F_SETLKW; they will set FL_SLEEP if (and only if) the request is for a blocking lock. When ->lock() does return asynchronously, it must return FILE_LOCK_DEFERRED, and call ->lm_grant() when the lock request completes. If the request is for non-blocking lock the file system should return FILE_LOCK_DEFERRED then try to get the lock and call the callback routine with the result. If the request timed out the callback routine will return a nonzero return code and the file system should release the lock. The file system is also responsible to keep a corresponding posix lock when it grants a lock so the VFS can find out which locks are locally held and do the correct lock cleanup when required. The underlying filesystem must not drop the kernel lock or call ->lm_grant() before returning to the caller with a FILE_LOCK_DEFERRED return code.

int vfs_cancel_lock(struct file *filp, struct file_lock *fl)

file byte range unblock lock

Parameters

struct file *filp

The file to apply the unblock to

struct file_lock *fl

The lock to be unblocked

Description

Used by lock managers to cancel blocked requests

bool vfs_inode_has_locks(struct inode *inode)

are any file locks held on inode?

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to check for locks

Description

Return true if there are any FL_POSIX or FL_FLOCK locks currently set on inode.

int posix_lock_inode_wait(struct inode *inode, struct file_lock *fl)

Apply a POSIX-style lock to a file

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode of file to which lock request should be applied

struct file_lock *fl

The lock to be applied

Description

Apply a POSIX style lock request to an inode.

int fcntl_getlease(struct file *filp)

Enquire what lease is currently active

Parameters

struct file *filp

the file

The value returned by this function will be one of (if no lease break is pending):

F_RDLCK to indicate a shared lease is held.

F_WRLCK to indicate an exclusive lease is held.

F_UNLCK to indicate no lease is held.

(if a lease break is pending):

F_RDLCK to indicate an exclusive lease needs to be

changed to a shared lease (or removed).

F_UNLCK to indicate the lease needs to be removed.

XXX: sfr & willy disagree over whether F_INPROGRESS should be returned to userspace.

int check_conflicting_open(struct file *filp, const int arg, int flags)

see if the given file points to an inode that has an existing open that would conflict with the desired lease.

Parameters

struct file *filp

file to check

const int arg

type of lease that we’re trying to acquire

int flags

current lock flags

Description

Check to see if there’s an existing open fd on this file that would conflict with the lease we’re trying to set.

int fcntl_setlease(unsigned int fd, struct file *filp, int arg)

sets a lease on an open file

Parameters

unsigned int fd

open file descriptor

struct file *filp

file pointer

int arg

type of lease to obtain

Call this fcntl to establish a lease on the file. Note that you also need to call F_SETSIG to receive a signal when the lease is broken.

int flock_lock_inode_wait(struct inode *inode, struct file_lock *fl)

Apply a FLOCK-style lock to a file

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode of the file to apply to

struct file_lock *fl

The lock to be applied

Description

Apply a FLOCK style lock request to an inode.

long sys_flock(unsigned int fd, unsigned int cmd)
  • flock() system call.

Parameters

unsigned int fd

the file descriptor to lock.

unsigned int cmd

the type of lock to apply.

Apply a FL_FLOCK style lock to an open file descriptor. The cmd can be one of:

  • LOCK_SH -- a shared lock.

  • LOCK_EX -- an exclusive lock.

  • LOCK_UN -- remove an existing lock.

  • LOCK_MAND -- a ‘mandatory’ flock. (DEPRECATED)

LOCK_MAND support has been removed from the kernel.

pid_t locks_translate_pid(struct file_lock_core *fl, struct pid_namespace *ns)

translate a file_lock’s fl_pid number into a namespace

Parameters

struct file_lock_core *fl

The file_lock who’s fl_pid should be translated

struct pid_namespace *ns

The namespace into which the pid should be translated

Description

Used to translate a fl_pid into a namespace virtual pid number

Other Functions

void mpage_readahead(struct readahead_control *rac, get_block_t get_block)

start reads against pages

Parameters

struct readahead_control *rac

Describes which pages to read.

get_block_t get_block

The filesystem’s block mapper function.

Description

This function walks the pages and the blocks within each page, building and emitting large BIOs.

If anything unusual happens, such as:

  • encountering a page which has buffers

  • encountering a page which has a non-hole after a hole

  • encountering a page with non-contiguous blocks

then this code just gives up and calls the buffer_head-based read function. It does handle a page which has holes at the end - that is a common case: the end-of-file on blocksize < PAGE_SIZE setups.

BH_Boundary explanation:

There is a problem. The mpage read code assembles several pages, gets all their disk mappings, and then submits them all. That’s fine, but obtaining the disk mappings may require I/O. Reads of indirect blocks, for example.

So an mpage read of the first 16 blocks of an ext2 file will cause I/O to be submitted in the following order:

12 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 13 14 15 16

because the indirect block has to be read to get the mappings of blocks 13,14,15,16. Obviously, this impacts performance.

So what we do it to allow the filesystem’s get_block() function to set BH_Boundary when it maps block 11. BH_Boundary says: mapping of the block after this one will require I/O against a block which is probably close to this one. So you should push what I/O you have currently accumulated.

This all causes the disk requests to be issued in the correct order.

int mpage_writepages(struct address_space *mapping, struct writeback_control *wbc, get_block_t get_block)

walk the list of dirty pages of the given address space & writepage() all of them

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping

address space structure to write

struct writeback_control *wbc

subtract the number of written pages from *wbc->nr_to_write

get_block_t get_block

the filesystem’s block mapper function.

Description

This is a library function, which implements the writepages() address_space_operation.

int generic_permission(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *inode, int mask)

check for access rights on a Posix-like filesystem

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct inode *inode

inode to check access rights for

int mask

right to check for (MAY_READ, MAY_WRITE, MAY_EXEC, MAY_NOT_BLOCK ...)

Description

Used to check for read/write/execute permissions on a file. We use “fsuid” for this, letting us set arbitrary permissions for filesystem access without changing the “normal” uids which are used for other things.

generic_permission is rcu-walk aware. It returns -ECHILD in case an rcu-walk request cannot be satisfied (eg. requires blocking or too much complexity). It would then be called again in ref-walk mode.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

int inode_permission(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *inode, int mask)

Check for access rights to a given inode

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct inode *inode

Inode to check permission on

int mask

Right to check for (MAY_READ, MAY_WRITE, MAY_EXEC)

Description

Check for read/write/execute permissions on an inode. We use fs[ug]id for this, letting us set arbitrary permissions for filesystem access without changing the “normal” UIDs which are used for other things.

When checking for MAY_APPEND, MAY_WRITE must also be set in mask.

void path_get(const struct path *path)

get a reference to a path

Parameters

const struct path *path

path to get the reference to

Description

Given a path increment the reference count to the dentry and the vfsmount.

void path_put(const struct path *path)

put a reference to a path

Parameters

const struct path *path

path to put the reference to

Description

Given a path decrement the reference count to the dentry and the vfsmount.

int vfs_path_parent_lookup(struct filename *filename, unsigned int flags, struct path *parent, struct qstr *last, int *type, const struct path *root)

lookup a parent path relative to a dentry-vfsmount pair

Parameters

struct filename *filename

filename structure

unsigned int flags

lookup flags

struct path *parent

pointer to struct path to fill

struct qstr *last

last component

int *type

type of the last component

const struct path *root

pointer to struct path of the base directory

int vfs_path_lookup(struct dentry *dentry, struct vfsmount *mnt, const char *name, unsigned int flags, struct path *path)

lookup a file path relative to a dentry-vfsmount pair

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

pointer to dentry of the base directory

struct vfsmount *mnt

pointer to vfs mount of the base directory

const char *name

pointer to file name

unsigned int flags

lookup flags

struct path *path

pointer to struct path to fill

struct dentry *try_lookup_one_len(const char *name, struct dentry *base, int len)

filesystem helper to lookup single pathname component

Parameters

const char *name

pathname component to lookup

struct dentry *base

base directory to lookup from

int len

maximum length len should be interpreted to

Description

Look up a dentry by name in the dcache, returning NULL if it does not currently exist. The function does not try to create a dentry.

Note that this routine is purely a helper for filesystem usage and should not be called by generic code.

The caller must hold base->i_mutex.

struct dentry *lookup_one_len(const char *name, struct dentry *base, int len)

filesystem helper to lookup single pathname component

Parameters

const char *name

pathname component to lookup

struct dentry *base

base directory to lookup from

int len

maximum length len should be interpreted to

Description

Note that this routine is purely a helper for filesystem usage and should not be called by generic code.

The caller must hold base->i_mutex.

struct dentry *lookup_one(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const char *name, struct dentry *base, int len)

filesystem helper to lookup single pathname component

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the lookup is performed from

const char *name

pathname component to lookup

struct dentry *base

base directory to lookup from

int len

maximum length len should be interpreted to

Description

Note that this routine is purely a helper for filesystem usage and should not be called by generic code.

The caller must hold base->i_mutex.

struct dentry *lookup_one_unlocked(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const char *name, struct dentry *base, int len)

filesystem helper to lookup single pathname component

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the lookup is performed from

const char *name

pathname component to lookup

struct dentry *base

base directory to lookup from

int len

maximum length len should be interpreted to

Description

Note that this routine is purely a helper for filesystem usage and should not be called by generic code.

Unlike lookup_one_len, it should be called without the parent i_mutex held, and will take the i_mutex itself if necessary.

struct dentry *lookup_one_positive_unlocked(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const char *name, struct dentry *base, int len)

filesystem helper to lookup single pathname component

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the lookup is performed from

const char *name

pathname component to lookup

struct dentry *base

base directory to lookup from

int len

maximum length len should be interpreted to

Description

This helper will yield ERR_PTR(-ENOENT) on negatives. The helper returns known positive or ERR_PTR(). This is what most of the users want.

Note that pinned negative with unlocked parent _can_ become positive at any time, so callers of lookup_one_unlocked() need to be very careful; pinned positives have >d_inode stable, so this one avoids such problems.

Note that this routine is purely a helper for filesystem usage and should not be called by generic code.

The helper should be called without i_mutex held.

struct dentry *lookup_one_len_unlocked(const char *name, struct dentry *base, int len)

filesystem helper to lookup single pathname component

Parameters

const char *name

pathname component to lookup

struct dentry *base

base directory to lookup from

int len

maximum length len should be interpreted to

Description

Note that this routine is purely a helper for filesystem usage and should not be called by generic code.

Unlike lookup_one_len, it should be called without the parent i_mutex held, and will take the i_mutex itself if necessary.

int vfs_create(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode, bool want_excl)

create new file

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct inode *dir

inode of dentry

struct dentry *dentry

pointer to dentry of the base directory

umode_t mode

mode of the new file

bool want_excl

whether the file must not yet exist

Description

Create a new file.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

struct file *kernel_tmpfile_open(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct path *parentpath, umode_t mode, int open_flag, const struct cred *cred)

open a tmpfile for kernel internal use

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

const struct path *parentpath

path of the base directory

umode_t mode

mode of the new tmpfile

int open_flag

flags

const struct cred *cred

credentials for open

Description

Create and open a temporary file. The file is not accounted in nr_files, hence this is only for kernel internal use, and must not be installed into file tables or such.

int vfs_mknod(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode, dev_t dev)

create device node or file

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct inode *dir

inode of dentry

struct dentry *dentry

pointer to dentry of the base directory

umode_t mode

mode of the new device node or file

dev_t dev

device number of device to create

Description

Create a device node or file.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

int vfs_mkdir(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode)

create directory

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct inode *dir

inode of dentry

struct dentry *dentry

pointer to dentry of the base directory

umode_t mode

mode of the new directory

Description

Create a directory.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

int vfs_rmdir(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *dir, struct dentry *dentry)

remove directory

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct inode *dir

inode of dentry

struct dentry *dentry

pointer to dentry of the base directory

Description

Remove a directory.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

unlink a filesystem object

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct inode *dir

parent directory

struct dentry *dentry

victim

struct inode **delegated_inode

returns victim inode, if the inode is delegated.

Description

The caller must hold dir->i_mutex.

If vfs_unlink discovers a delegation, it will return -EWOULDBLOCK and return a reference to the inode in delegated_inode. The caller should then break the delegation on that inode and retry. Because breaking a delegation may take a long time, the caller should drop dir->i_mutex before doing so.

Alternatively, a caller may pass NULL for delegated_inode. This may be appropriate for callers that expect the underlying filesystem not to be NFS exported.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

create symlink

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct inode *dir

inode of dentry

struct dentry *dentry

pointer to dentry of the base directory

const char *oldname

name of the file to link to

Description

Create a symlink.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

create a new link

Parameters

struct dentry *old_dentry

object to be linked

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount

struct inode *dir

new parent

struct dentry *new_dentry

where to create the new link

struct inode **delegated_inode

returns inode needing a delegation break

Description

The caller must hold dir->i_mutex

If vfs_link discovers a delegation on the to-be-linked file in need of breaking, it will return -EWOULDBLOCK and return a reference to the inode in delegated_inode. The caller should then break the delegation and retry. Because breaking a delegation may take a long time, the caller should drop the i_mutex before doing so.

Alternatively, a caller may pass NULL for delegated_inode. This may be appropriate for callers that expect the underlying filesystem not to be NFS exported.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

int vfs_rename(struct renamedata *rd)

rename a filesystem object

Parameters

struct renamedata *rd

pointer to struct renamedata info

Description

The caller must hold multiple mutexes--see lock_rename()).

If vfs_rename discovers a delegation in need of breaking at either the source or destination, it will return -EWOULDBLOCK and return a reference to the inode in delegated_inode. The caller should then break the delegation and retry. Because breaking a delegation may take a long time, the caller should drop all locks before doing so.

Alternatively, a caller may pass NULL for delegated_inode. This may be appropriate for callers that expect the underlying filesystem not to be NFS exported.

The worst of all namespace operations - renaming directory. “Perverted” doesn’t even start to describe it. Somebody in UCB had a heck of a trip... Problems:

  1. we can get into loop creation.

  2. race potential - two innocent renames can create a loop together. That’s where 4.4BSD screws up. Current fix: serialization on sb->s_vfs_rename_mutex. We might be more accurate, but that’s another story.

  3. we may have to lock up to _four_ objects - parents and victim (if it exists), and source (if it’s a non-directory or a subdirectory that moves to different parent). And that - after we got ->i_mutex on parents (until then we don’t know whether the target exists). Solution: try to be smart with locking order for inodes. We rely on the fact that tree topology may change only under ->s_vfs_rename_mutex _and_ that parent of the object we move will be locked. Thus we can rank directories by the tree (ancestors first) and rank all non-directories after them. That works since everybody except rename does “lock parent, lookup, lock child” and rename is under ->s_vfs_rename_mutex. HOWEVER, it relies on the assumption that any object with ->lookup() has no more than 1 dentry. If “hybrid” objects will ever appear, we’d better make sure that there’s no link(2) for them.

  4. conversion from fhandle to dentry may come in the wrong moment - when we are removing the target. Solution: we will have to grab ->i_mutex in the fhandle_to_dentry code. [FIXME - current nfsfh.c relies on ->i_mutex on parents, which works but leads to some truly excessive locking].

copy symlink body into userspace buffer

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

dentry on which to get symbolic link

char __user *buffer

user memory pointer

int buflen

size of buffer

Description

Does not touch atime. That’s up to the caller if necessary

Does not call security hook.

get symlink body

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

dentry on which to get symbolic link

struct delayed_call *done

caller needs to free returned data with this

Description

Calls security hook and i_op->get_link() on the supplied inode.

It does not touch atime. That’s up to the caller if necessary.

Does not work on “special” symlinks like /proc/$$/fd/N

void bio_reset(struct bio *bio, struct block_device *bdev, blk_opf_t opf)

reinitialize a bio

Parameters

struct bio *bio

bio to reset

struct block_device *bdev

block device to use the bio for

blk_opf_t opf

operation and flags for bio

Description

After calling bio_reset(), bio will be in the same state as a freshly allocated bio returned bio bio_alloc_bioset() - the only fields that are preserved are the ones that are initialized by bio_alloc_bioset(). See comment in struct bio.

void bio_chain(struct bio *bio, struct bio *parent)

chain bio completions

Parameters

struct bio *bio

the target bio

struct bio *parent

the parent bio of bio

Description

The caller won’t have a bi_end_io called when bio completes - instead, parent’s bi_end_io won’t be called until both parent and bio have completed; the chained bio will also be freed when it completes.

The caller must not set bi_private or bi_end_io in bio.

struct bio *bio_alloc_bioset(struct block_device *bdev, unsigned short nr_vecs, blk_opf_t opf, gfp_t gfp_mask, struct bio_set *bs)

allocate a bio for I/O

Parameters

struct block_device *bdev

block device to allocate the bio for (can be NULL)

unsigned short nr_vecs

number of bvecs to pre-allocate

blk_opf_t opf

operation and flags for bio

gfp_t gfp_mask

the GFP_* mask given to the slab allocator

struct bio_set *bs

the bio_set to allocate from.

Description

Allocate a bio from the mempools in bs.

If __GFP_DIRECT_RECLAIM is set then bio_alloc will always be able to allocate a bio. This is due to the mempool guarantees. To make this work, callers must never allocate more than 1 bio at a time from the general pool. Callers that need to allocate more than 1 bio must always submit the previously allocated bio for IO before attempting to allocate a new one. Failure to do so can cause deadlocks under memory pressure.

Note that when running under submit_bio_noacct() (i.e. any block driver), bios are not submitted until after you return - see the code in submit_bio_noacct() that converts recursion into iteration, to prevent stack overflows.

This would normally mean allocating multiple bios under submit_bio_noacct() would be susceptible to deadlocks, but we have deadlock avoidance code that resubmits any blocked bios from a rescuer thread.

However, we do not guarantee forward progress for allocations from other mempools. Doing multiple allocations from the same mempool under submit_bio_noacct() should be avoided - instead, use bio_set’s front_pad for per bio allocations.

Return

Pointer to new bio on success, NULL on failure.

struct bio *bio_kmalloc(unsigned short nr_vecs, gfp_t gfp_mask)

kmalloc a bio

Parameters

unsigned short nr_vecs

number of bio_vecs to allocate

gfp_t gfp_mask

the GFP_* mask given to the slab allocator

Description

Use kmalloc to allocate a bio (including bvecs). The bio must be initialized using bio_init() before use. To free a bio returned from this function use kfree() after calling bio_uninit(). A bio returned from this function can be reused by calling bio_uninit() before calling bio_init() again.

Note that unlike bio_alloc() or bio_alloc_bioset() allocations from this function are not backed by a mempool can fail. Do not use this function for allocations in the file system I/O path.

Return

Pointer to new bio on success, NULL on failure.

void bio_put(struct bio *bio)

release a reference to a bio

Parameters

struct bio *bio

bio to release reference to

Description

Put a reference to a struct bio, either one you have gotten with bio_alloc, bio_get or bio_clone_*. The last put of a bio will free it.

struct bio *bio_alloc_clone(struct block_device *bdev, struct bio *bio_src, gfp_t gfp, struct bio_set *bs)

clone a bio that shares the original bio’s biovec

Parameters

struct block_device *bdev

block_device to clone onto

struct bio *bio_src

bio to clone from

gfp_t gfp

allocation priority

struct bio_set *bs

bio_set to allocate from

Description

Allocate a new bio that is a clone of bio_src. The caller owns the returned bio, but not the actual data it points to.

The caller must ensure that the return bio is not freed before bio_src.

int bio_init_clone(struct block_device *bdev, struct bio *bio, struct bio *bio_src, gfp_t gfp)

clone a bio that shares the original bio’s biovec

Parameters

struct block_device *bdev

block_device to clone onto

struct bio *bio

bio to clone into

struct bio *bio_src

bio to clone from

gfp_t gfp

allocation priority

Description

Initialize a new bio in caller provided memory that is a clone of bio_src. The caller owns the returned bio, but not the actual data it points to.

The caller must ensure that bio_src is not freed before bio.

int bio_add_pc_page(struct request_queue *q, struct bio *bio, struct page *page, unsigned int len, unsigned int offset)

attempt to add page to passthrough bio

Parameters

struct request_queue *q

the target queue

struct bio *bio

destination bio

struct page *page

page to add

unsigned int len

vec entry length

unsigned int offset

vec entry offset

Description

Attempt to add a page to the bio_vec maplist. This can fail for a number of reasons, such as the bio being full or target block device limitations. The target block device must allow bio’s up to PAGE_SIZE, so it is always possible to add a single page to an empty bio.

This should only be used by passthrough bios.

int bio_add_zone_append_page(struct bio *bio, struct page *page, unsigned int len, unsigned int offset)

attempt to add page to zone-append bio

Parameters

struct bio *bio

destination bio

struct page *page

page to add

unsigned int len

vec entry length

unsigned int offset

vec entry offset

Description

Attempt to add a page to the bio_vec maplist of a bio that will be submitted for a zone-append request. This can fail for a number of reasons, such as the bio being full or the target block device is not a zoned block device or other limitations of the target block device. The target block device must allow bio’s up to PAGE_SIZE, so it is always possible to add a single page to an empty bio.

Return

number of bytes added to the bio, or 0 in case of a failure.

void __bio_add_page(struct bio *bio, struct page *page, unsigned int len, unsigned int off)

add page(s) to a bio in a new segment

Parameters

struct bio *bio

destination bio

struct page *page

start page to add

unsigned int len

length of the data to add, may cross pages

unsigned int off

offset of the data relative to page, may cross pages

Description

Add the data at page + off to bio as a new bvec. The caller must ensure that bio has space for another bvec.

int bio_add_page(struct bio *bio, struct page *page, unsigned int len, unsigned int offset)

attempt to add page(s) to bio

Parameters

struct bio *bio

destination bio

struct page *page

start page to add

unsigned int len

vec entry length, may cross pages

unsigned int offset

vec entry offset relative to page, may cross pages

Attempt to add page(s) to the bio_vec maplist. This will only fail if either bio->bi_vcnt == bio->bi_max_vecs or it’s a cloned bio.

bool bio_add_folio(struct bio *bio, struct folio *folio, size_t len, size_t off)

Attempt to add part of a folio to a bio.

Parameters

struct bio *bio

BIO to add to.

struct folio *folio

Folio to add.

size_t len

How many bytes from the folio to add.

size_t off

First byte in this folio to add.

Description

Filesystems that use folios can call this function instead of calling bio_add_page() for each page in the folio. If off is bigger than PAGE_SIZE, this function can create a bio_vec that starts in a page after the bv_page. BIOs do not support folios that are 4GiB or larger.

Return

Whether the addition was successful.

int bio_iov_iter_get_pages(struct bio *bio, struct iov_iter *iter)

add user or kernel pages to a bio

Parameters

struct bio *bio

bio to add pages to

struct iov_iter *iter

iov iterator describing the region to be added

Description

This takes either an iterator pointing to user memory, or one pointing to kernel pages (BVEC iterator). If we’re adding user pages, we pin them and map them into the kernel. On IO completion, the caller should put those pages. For bvec based iterators bio_iov_iter_get_pages() uses the provided bvecs rather than copying them. Hence anyone issuing kiocb based IO needs to ensure the bvecs and pages stay referenced until the submitted I/O is completed by a call to ->ki_complete() or returns with an error other than -EIOCBQUEUED. The caller needs to check if the bio is flagged BIO_NO_PAGE_REF on IO completion. If it isn’t, then pages should be released.

The function tries, but does not guarantee, to pin as many pages as fit into the bio, or are requested in iter, whatever is smaller. If MM encounters an error pinning the requested pages, it stops. Error is returned only if 0 pages could be pinned.

int submit_bio_wait(struct bio *bio)

submit a bio, and wait until it completes

Parameters

struct bio *bio

The struct bio which describes the I/O

Description

Simple wrapper around submit_bio(). Returns 0 on success, or the error from bio_endio() on failure.

WARNING: Unlike to how submit_bio() is usually used, this function does not result in bio reference to be consumed. The caller must drop the reference on his own.

void bio_copy_data(struct bio *dst, struct bio *src)

copy contents of data buffers from one bio to another

Parameters

struct bio *dst

destination bio

struct bio *src

source bio

Description

Stops when it reaches the end of either src or dst - that is, copies min(src->bi_size, dst->bi_size) bytes (or the equivalent for lists of bios).

void bio_endio(struct bio *bio)

end I/O on a bio

Parameters

struct bio *bio

bio

Description

bio_endio() will end I/O on the whole bio. bio_endio() is the preferred way to end I/O on a bio. No one should call bi_end_io() directly on a bio unless they own it and thus know that it has an end_io function.

bio_endio() can be called several times on a bio that has been chained using bio_chain(). The ->bi_end_io() function will only be called the last time.

struct bio *bio_split(struct bio *bio, int sectors, gfp_t gfp, struct bio_set *bs)

split a bio

Parameters

struct bio *bio

bio to split

int sectors

number of sectors to split from the front of bio

gfp_t gfp

gfp mask

struct bio_set *bs

bio set to allocate from

Description

Allocates and returns a new bio which represents sectors from the start of bio, and updates bio to represent the remaining sectors.

Unless this is a discard request the newly allocated bio will point to bio’s bi_io_vec. It is the caller’s responsibility to ensure that neither bio nor bs are freed before the split bio.

void bio_trim(struct bio *bio, sector_t offset, sector_t size)

trim a bio

Parameters

struct bio *bio

bio to trim

sector_t offset

number of sectors to trim from the front of bio

sector_t size

size we want to trim bio to, in sectors

Description

This function is typically used for bios that are cloned and submitted to the underlying device in parts.

int bioset_init(struct bio_set *bs, unsigned int pool_size, unsigned int front_pad, int flags)

Initialize a bio_set

Parameters

struct bio_set *bs

pool to initialize

unsigned int pool_size

Number of bio and bio_vecs to cache in the mempool

unsigned int front_pad

Number of bytes to allocate in front of the returned bio

int flags

Flags to modify behavior, currently BIOSET_NEED_BVECS and BIOSET_NEED_RESCUER

Description

Set up a bio_set to be used with bio_alloc_bioset. Allows the caller to ask for a number of bytes to be allocated in front of the bio. Front pad allocation is useful for embedding the bio inside another structure, to avoid allocating extra data to go with the bio. Note that the bio must be embedded at the END of that structure always, or things will break badly. If BIOSET_NEED_BVECS is set in flags, a separate pool will be allocated for allocating iovecs. This pool is not needed e.g. for bio_init_clone(). If BIOSET_NEED_RESCUER is set, a workqueue is created which can be used to dispatch queued requests when the mempool runs out of space.

int seq_open(struct file *file, const struct seq_operations *op)

initialize sequential file

Parameters

struct file *file

file we initialize

const struct seq_operations *op

method table describing the sequence

seq_open() sets file, associating it with a sequence described by op. op->start() sets the iterator up and returns the first element of sequence. op->stop() shuts it down. op->next() returns the next element of sequence. op->show() prints element into the buffer. In case of error ->start() and ->next() return ERR_PTR(error). In the end of sequence they return NULL. ->show() returns 0 in case of success and negative number in case of error. Returning SEQ_SKIP means “discard this element and move on”.

Note

seq_open() will allocate a struct seq_file and store its

pointer in file->private_data. This pointer should not be modified.

ssize_t seq_read(struct file *file, char __user *buf, size_t size, loff_t *ppos)

->read() method for sequential files.

Parameters

struct file *file

the file to read from

char __user *buf

the buffer to read to

size_t size

the maximum number of bytes to read

loff_t *ppos

the current position in the file

Ready-made ->f_op->read()

loff_t seq_lseek(struct file *file, loff_t offset, int whence)

->llseek() method for sequential files.

Parameters

struct file *file

the file in question

loff_t offset

new position

int whence

0 for absolute, 1 for relative position

Ready-made ->f_op->llseek()

int seq_release(struct inode *inode, struct file *file)

free the structures associated with sequential file.

Parameters

struct inode *inode

its inode

Frees the structures associated with sequential file; can be used as ->f_op->release() if you don’t have private data to destroy.

struct file *file

file in question

void seq_escape_mem(struct seq_file *m, const char *src, size_t len, unsigned int flags, const char *esc)

print data into buffer, escaping some characters

Parameters

struct seq_file *m

target buffer

const char *src

source buffer

size_t len

size of source buffer

unsigned int flags

flags to pass to string_escape_mem()

const char *esc

set of characters that need escaping

Description

Puts data into buffer, replacing each occurrence of character from given class (defined by flags and esc) with printable escaped sequence.

Use seq_has_overflowed() to check for errors.

char *mangle_path(char *s, const char *p, const char *esc)

mangle and copy path to buffer beginning

Parameters

char *s

buffer start

const char *p

beginning of path in above buffer

const char *esc

set of characters that need escaping

Copy the path from p to s, replacing each occurrence of character from esc with usual octal escape. Returns pointer past last written character in s, or NULL in case of failure.

int seq_path(struct seq_file *m, const struct path *path, const char *esc)

seq_file interface to print a pathname

Parameters

struct seq_file *m

the seq_file handle

const struct path *path

the struct path to print

const char *esc

set of characters to escape in the output

Description

return the absolute path of ‘path’, as represented by the dentry / mnt pair in the path parameter.

int seq_file_path(struct seq_file *m, struct file *file, const char *esc)

seq_file interface to print a pathname of a file

Parameters

struct seq_file *m

the seq_file handle

struct file *file

the struct file to print

const char *esc

set of characters to escape in the output

Description

return the absolute path to the file.

int seq_write(struct seq_file *seq, const void *data, size_t len)

write arbitrary data to buffer

Parameters

struct seq_file *seq

seq_file identifying the buffer to which data should be written

const void *data

data address

size_t len

number of bytes

Description

Return 0 on success, non-zero otherwise.

void seq_pad(struct seq_file *m, char c)

write padding spaces to buffer

Parameters

struct seq_file *m

seq_file identifying the buffer to which data should be written

char c

the byte to append after padding if non-zero

struct hlist_node *seq_hlist_start(struct hlist_head *head, loff_t pos)

start an iteration of a hlist

Parameters

struct hlist_head *head

the head of the hlist

loff_t pos

the start position of the sequence

Description

Called at seq_file->op->start().

struct hlist_node *seq_hlist_start_head(struct hlist_head *head, loff_t pos)

start an iteration of a hlist

Parameters

struct hlist_head *head

the head of the hlist

loff_t pos

the start position of the sequence

Description

Called at seq_file->op->start(). Call this function if you want to print a header at the top of the output.

struct hlist_node *seq_hlist_next(void *v, struct hlist_head *head, loff_t *ppos)

move to the next position of the hlist

Parameters

void *v

the current iterator

struct hlist_head *head

the head of the hlist

loff_t *ppos

the current position

Description

Called at seq_file->op->next().

struct hlist_node *seq_hlist_start_rcu(struct hlist_head *head, loff_t pos)

start an iteration of a hlist protected by RCU

Parameters

struct hlist_head *head

the head of the hlist

loff_t pos

the start position of the sequence

Description

Called at seq_file->op->start().

This list-traversal primitive may safely run concurrently with the _rcu list-mutation primitives such as hlist_add_head_rcu() as long as the traversal is guarded by rcu_read_lock().

struct hlist_node *seq_hlist_start_head_rcu(struct hlist_head *head, loff_t pos)

start an iteration of a hlist protected by RCU

Parameters

struct hlist_head *head

the head of the hlist

loff_t pos

the start position of the sequence

Description

Called at seq_file->op->start(). Call this function if you want to print a header at the top of the output.

This list-traversal primitive may safely run concurrently with the _rcu list-mutation primitives such as hlist_add_head_rcu() as long as the traversal is guarded by rcu_read_lock().

struct hlist_node *seq_hlist_next_rcu(void *v, struct hlist_head *head, loff_t *ppos)

move to the next position of the hlist protected by RCU

Parameters

void *v

the current iterator

struct hlist_head *head

the head of the hlist

loff_t *ppos

the current position

Description

Called at seq_file->op->next().

This list-traversal primitive may safely run concurrently with the _rcu list-mutation primitives such as hlist_add_head_rcu() as long as the traversal is guarded by rcu_read_lock().

struct hlist_node *seq_hlist_start_percpu(struct hlist_head __percpu *head, int *cpu, loff_t pos)

start an iteration of a percpu hlist array

Parameters

struct hlist_head __percpu *head

pointer to percpu array of struct hlist_heads

int *cpu

pointer to cpu “cursor”

loff_t pos

start position of sequence

Description

Called at seq_file->op->start().

struct hlist_node *seq_hlist_next_percpu(void *v, struct hlist_head __percpu *head, int *cpu, loff_t *pos)

move to the next position of the percpu hlist array

Parameters

void *v

pointer to current hlist_node

struct hlist_head __percpu *head

pointer to percpu array of struct hlist_heads

int *cpu

pointer to cpu “cursor”

loff_t *pos

start position of sequence

Description

Called at seq_file->op->next().

int register_filesystem(struct file_system_type *fs)

register a new filesystem

Parameters

struct file_system_type * fs

the file system structure

Adds the file system passed to the list of file systems the kernel is aware of for mount and other syscalls. Returns 0 on success, or a negative errno code on an error.

The struct file_system_type that is passed is linked into the kernel structures and must not be freed until the file system has been unregistered.

int unregister_filesystem(struct file_system_type *fs)

unregister a file system

Parameters

struct file_system_type * fs

filesystem to unregister

Remove a file system that was previously successfully registered with the kernel. An error is returned if the file system is not found. Zero is returned on a success.

Once this function has returned the struct file_system_type structure may be freed or reused.

void wbc_attach_and_unlock_inode(struct writeback_control *wbc, struct inode *inode)

associate wbc with target inode and unlock it

Parameters

struct writeback_control *wbc

writeback_control of interest

struct inode *inode

target inode

Description

inode is locked and about to be written back under the control of wbc. Record inode’s writeback context into wbc and unlock the i_lock. On writeback completion, wbc_detach_inode() should be called. This is used to track the cgroup writeback context.

void wbc_detach_inode(struct writeback_control *wbc)

disassociate wbc from inode and perform foreign detection

Parameters

struct writeback_control *wbc

writeback_control of the just finished writeback

Description

To be called after a writeback attempt of an inode finishes and undoes wbc_attach_and_unlock_inode(). Can be called under any context.

As concurrent write sharing of an inode is expected to be very rare and memcg only tracks page ownership on first-use basis severely confining the usefulness of such sharing, cgroup writeback tracks ownership per-inode. While the support for concurrent write sharing of an inode is deemed unnecessary, an inode being written to by different cgroups at different points in time is a lot more common, and, more importantly, charging only by first-use can too readily lead to grossly incorrect behaviors (single foreign page can lead to gigabytes of writeback to be incorrectly attributed).

To resolve this issue, cgroup writeback detects the majority dirtier of an inode and transfers the ownership to it. To avoid unnecessary oscillation, the detection mechanism keeps track of history and gives out the switch verdict only if the foreign usage pattern is stable over a certain amount of time and/or writeback attempts.

On each writeback attempt, wbc tries to detect the majority writer using Boyer-Moore majority vote algorithm. In addition to the byte count from the majority voting, it also counts the bytes written for the current wb and the last round’s winner wb (max of last round’s current wb, the winner from two rounds ago, and the last round’s majority candidate). Keeping track of the historical winner helps the algorithm to semi-reliably detect the most active writer even when it’s not the absolute majority.

Once the winner of the round is determined, whether the winner is foreign or not and how much IO time the round consumed is recorded in inode->i_wb_frn_history. If the amount of recorded foreign IO time is over a certain threshold, the switch verdict is given.

void wbc_account_cgroup_owner(struct writeback_control *wbc, struct page *page, size_t bytes)

account writeback to update inode cgroup ownership

Parameters

struct writeback_control *wbc

writeback_control of the writeback in progress

struct page *page

page being written out

size_t bytes

number of bytes being written out

Description

bytes from page are about to written out during the writeback controlled by wbc. Keep the book for foreign inode detection. See wbc_detach_inode().

void __mark_inode_dirty(struct inode *inode, int flags)

internal function to mark an inode dirty

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to mark

int flags

what kind of dirty, e.g. I_DIRTY_SYNC. This can be a combination of multiple I_DIRTY_* flags, except that I_DIRTY_TIME can’t be combined with I_DIRTY_PAGES.

Description

Mark an inode as dirty. We notify the filesystem, then update the inode’s dirty flags. Then, if needed we add the inode to the appropriate dirty list.

Most callers should use mark_inode_dirty() or mark_inode_dirty_sync() instead of calling this directly.

CAREFUL! We only add the inode to the dirty list if it is hashed or if it refers to a blockdev. Unhashed inodes will never be added to the dirty list even if they are later hashed, as they will have been marked dirty already.

In short, ensure you hash any inodes _before_ you start marking them dirty.

Note that for blockdevs, inode->dirtied_when represents the dirtying time of the block-special inode (/dev/hda1) itself. And the ->dirtied_when field of the kernel-internal blockdev inode represents the dirtying time of the blockdev’s pages. This is why for I_DIRTY_PAGES we always use page->mapping->host, so the page-dirtying time is recorded in the internal blockdev inode.

void writeback_inodes_sb_nr(struct super_block *sb, unsigned long nr, enum wb_reason reason)

writeback dirty inodes from given super_block

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the superblock

unsigned long nr

the number of pages to write

enum wb_reason reason

reason why some writeback work initiated

Description

Start writeback on some inodes on this super_block. No guarantees are made on how many (if any) will be written, and this function does not wait for IO completion of submitted IO.

void writeback_inodes_sb(struct super_block *sb, enum wb_reason reason)

writeback dirty inodes from given super_block

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the superblock

enum wb_reason reason

reason why some writeback work was initiated

Description

Start writeback on some inodes on this super_block. No guarantees are made on how many (if any) will be written, and this function does not wait for IO completion of submitted IO.

void try_to_writeback_inodes_sb(struct super_block *sb, enum wb_reason reason)

try to start writeback if none underway

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the superblock

enum wb_reason reason

reason why some writeback work was initiated

Description

Invoke __writeback_inodes_sb_nr if no writeback is currently underway.

void sync_inodes_sb(struct super_block *sb)

sync sb inode pages

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

the superblock

Description

This function writes and waits on any dirty inode belonging to this super_block.

int write_inode_now(struct inode *inode, int sync)

write an inode to disk

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to write to disk

int sync

whether the write should be synchronous or not

Description

This function commits an inode to disk immediately if it is dirty. This is primarily needed by knfsd.

The caller must either have a ref on the inode or must have set I_WILL_FREE.

int sync_inode_metadata(struct inode *inode, int wait)

write an inode to disk

Parameters

struct inode *inode

the inode to sync

int wait

wait for I/O to complete.

Description

Write an inode to disk and adjust its dirty state after completion.

Note

only writes the actual inode, no associated data or other metadata.

struct file *anon_inode_getfile(const char *name, const struct file_operations *fops, void *priv, int flags)

creates a new file instance by hooking it up to an anonymous inode, and a dentry that describe the “class” of the file

Parameters

const char *name

[in] name of the “class” of the new file

const struct file_operations *fops

[in] file operations for the new file

void *priv

[in] private data for the new file (will be file’s private_data)

int flags

[in] flags

Description

Creates a new file by hooking it on a single inode. This is useful for files that do not need to have a full-fledged inode in order to operate correctly. All the files created with anon_inode_getfile() will share a single inode, hence saving memory and avoiding code duplication for the file/inode/dentry setup. Returns the newly created file* or an error pointer.

struct file *anon_inode_getfile_fmode(const char *name, const struct file_operations *fops, void *priv, int flags, fmode_t f_mode)

creates a new file instance by hooking it up to an anonymous inode, and a dentry that describe the “class” of the file

Parameters

const char *name

[in] name of the “class” of the new file

const struct file_operations *fops

[in] file operations for the new file

void *priv

[in] private data for the new file (will be file’s private_data)

int flags

[in] flags

fmode_t f_mode

[in] fmode

Description

Creates a new file by hooking it on a single inode. This is useful for files that do not need to have a full-fledged inode in order to operate correctly. All the files created with anon_inode_getfile() will share a single inode, hence saving memory and avoiding code duplication for the file/inode/dentry setup. Allows setting the fmode. Returns the newly created file* or an error pointer.

struct file *anon_inode_create_getfile(const char *name, const struct file_operations *fops, void *priv, int flags, const struct inode *context_inode)

Like anon_inode_getfile(), but creates a new !S_PRIVATE anon inode rather than reuse the singleton anon inode and calls the inode_init_security_anon() LSM hook.

Parameters

const char *name

[in] name of the “class” of the new file

const struct file_operations *fops

[in] file operations for the new file

void *priv

[in] private data for the new file (will be file’s private_data)

int flags

[in] flags

const struct inode *context_inode

[in] the logical relationship with the new inode (optional)

Description

Create a new anonymous inode and file pair. This can be done for two reasons:

  • for the inode to have its own security context, so that LSMs can enforce policy on the inode’s creation;

  • if the caller needs a unique inode, for example in order to customize the size returned by fstat()

The LSM may use context_inode in inode_init_security_anon(), but a reference to it is not held.

Returns the newly created file* or an error pointer.

int anon_inode_getfd(const char *name, const struct file_operations *fops, void *priv, int flags)

creates a new file instance by hooking it up to an anonymous inode and a dentry that describe the “class” of the file

Parameters

const char *name

[in] name of the “class” of the new file

const struct file_operations *fops

[in] file operations for the new file

void *priv

[in] private data for the new file (will be file’s private_data)

int flags

[in] flags

Description

Creates a new file by hooking it on a single inode. This is useful for files that do not need to have a full-fledged inode in order to operate correctly. All the files created with anon_inode_getfd() will use the same singleton inode, reducing memory use and avoiding code duplication for the file/inode/dentry setup. Returns a newly created file descriptor or an error code.

int setattr_should_drop_sgid(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, const struct inode *inode)

determine whether the setgid bit needs to be removed

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount inode was found from

const struct inode *inode

inode to check

Description

This function determines whether the setgid bit needs to be removed. We retain backwards compatibility and require setgid bit to be removed unconditionally if S_IXGRP is set. Otherwise we have the exact same requirements as setattr_prepare() and setattr_copy().

Return

ATTR_KILL_SGID if setgid bit needs to be removed, 0 otherwise.

int setattr_should_drop_suidgid(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *inode)

determine whether the set{g,u}id bit needs to be dropped

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount inode was found from

struct inode *inode

inode to check

Description

This function determines whether the set{g,u}id bits need to be removed. If the setuid bit needs to be removed ATTR_KILL_SUID is returned. If the setgid bit needs to be removed ATTR_KILL_SGID is returned. If both set{g,u}id bits need to be removed the corresponding mask of both flags is returned.

Return

A mask of ATTR_KILL_S{G,U}ID indicating which - if any - setid bits to remove, 0 otherwise.

int setattr_prepare(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct dentry *dentry, struct iattr *attr)

check if attribute changes to a dentry are allowed

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct dentry *dentry

dentry to check

struct iattr *attr

attributes to change

Description

Check if we are allowed to change the attributes contained in attr in the given dentry. This includes the normal unix access permission checks, as well as checks for rlimits and others. The function also clears SGID bit from mode if user is not allowed to set it. Also file capabilities and IMA extended attributes are cleared if ATTR_KILL_PRIV is set.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

Should be called as the first thing in ->setattr implementations, possibly after taking additional locks.

int inode_newsize_ok(const struct inode *inode, loff_t offset)

may this inode be truncated to a given size

Parameters

const struct inode *inode

the inode to be truncated

loff_t offset

the new size to assign to the inode

Description

inode_newsize_ok must be called with i_mutex held.

inode_newsize_ok will check filesystem limits and ulimits to check that the new inode size is within limits. inode_newsize_ok will also send SIGXFSZ when necessary. Caller must not proceed with inode size change if failure is returned. inode must be a file (not directory), with appropriate permissions to allow truncate (inode_newsize_ok does NOT check these conditions).

Return

0 on success, -ve errno on failure

void setattr_copy(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *inode, const struct iattr *attr)

copy simple metadata updates into the generic inode

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct inode *inode

the inode to be updated

const struct iattr *attr

the new attributes

Description

setattr_copy must be called with i_mutex held.

setattr_copy updates the inode’s metadata with that specified in attr on idmapped mounts. Necessary permission checks to determine whether or not the S_ISGID property needs to be removed are performed with the correct idmapped mount permission helpers. Noticeably missing is inode size update, which is more complex as it requires pagecache updates.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

The inode is not marked as dirty after this operation. The rationale is that for “simple” filesystems, the struct inode is the inode storage. The caller is free to mark the inode dirty afterwards if needed.

int notify_change(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct dentry *dentry, struct iattr *attr, struct inode **delegated_inode)

modify attributes of a filesystem object

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

struct dentry *dentry

object affected

struct iattr *attr

new attributes

struct inode **delegated_inode

returns inode, if the inode is delegated

Description

The caller must hold the i_mutex on the affected object.

If notify_change discovers a delegation in need of breaking, it will return -EWOULDBLOCK and return a reference to the inode in delegated_inode. The caller should then break the delegation and retry. Because breaking a delegation may take a long time, the caller should drop the i_mutex before doing so.

Alternatively, a caller may pass NULL for delegated_inode. This may be appropriate for callers that expect the underlying filesystem not to be NFS exported. Also, passing NULL is fine for callers holding the file open for write, as there can be no conflicting delegation in that case.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

char *d_path(const struct path *path, char *buf, int buflen)

return the path of a dentry

Parameters

const struct path *path

path to report

char *buf

buffer to return value in

int buflen

buffer length

Description

Convert a dentry into an ASCII path name. If the entry has been deleted the string ” (deleted)” is appended. Note that this is ambiguous.

Returns a pointer into the buffer or an error code if the path was too long. Note: Callers should use the returned pointer, not the passed in buffer, to use the name! The implementation often starts at an offset into the buffer, and may leave 0 bytes at the start.

“buflen” should be positive.

struct page *dax_layout_busy_page_range(struct address_space *mapping, loff_t start, loff_t end)

find first pinned page in mapping

Parameters

struct address_space *mapping

address space to scan for a page with ref count > 1

loff_t start

Starting offset. Page containing ‘start’ is included.

loff_t end

End offset. Page containing ‘end’ is included. If ‘end’ is LLONG_MAX, pages from ‘start’ till the end of file are included.

Description

DAX requires ZONE_DEVICE mapped pages. These pages are never ‘onlined’ to the page allocator so they are considered idle when page->count == 1. A filesystem uses this interface to determine if any page in the mapping is busy, i.e. for DMA, or other get_user_pages() usages.

It is expected that the filesystem is holding locks to block the establishment of new mappings in this address_space. I.e. it expects to be able to run unmap_mapping_range() and subsequently not race mapping_mapped() becoming true.

ssize_t dax_iomap_rw(struct kiocb *iocb, struct iov_iter *iter, const struct iomap_ops *ops)

Perform I/O to a DAX file

Parameters

struct kiocb *iocb

The control block for this I/O

struct iov_iter *iter

The addresses to do I/O from or to

const struct iomap_ops *ops

iomap ops passed from the file system

Description

This function performs read and write operations to directly mapped persistent memory. The callers needs to take care of read/write exclusion and evicting any page cache pages in the region under I/O.

vm_fault_t dax_iomap_fault(struct vm_fault *vmf, unsigned int order, pfn_t *pfnp, int *iomap_errp, const struct iomap_ops *ops)

handle a page fault on a DAX file

Parameters

struct vm_fault *vmf

The description of the fault

unsigned int order

Order of the page to fault in

pfn_t *pfnp

PFN to insert for synchronous faults if fsync is required

int *iomap_errp

Storage for detailed error code in case of error

const struct iomap_ops *ops

Iomap ops passed from the file system

Description

When a page fault occurs, filesystems may call this helper in their fault handler for DAX files. dax_iomap_fault() assumes the caller has done all the necessary locking for page fault to proceed successfully.

vm_fault_t dax_finish_sync_fault(struct vm_fault *vmf, unsigned int order, pfn_t pfn)

finish synchronous page fault

Parameters

struct vm_fault *vmf

The description of the fault

unsigned int order

Order of entry to be inserted

pfn_t pfn

PFN to insert

Description

This function ensures that the file range touched by the page fault is stored persistently on the media and handles inserting of appropriate page table entry.

void simple_rename_timestamp(struct inode *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry, struct inode *new_dir, struct dentry *new_dentry)

update the various inode timestamps for rename

Parameters

struct inode *old_dir

old parent directory

struct dentry *old_dentry

dentry that is being renamed

struct inode *new_dir

new parent directory

struct dentry *new_dentry

target for rename

Description

POSIX mandates that the old and new parent directories have their ctime and mtime updated, and that inodes of old_dentry and new_dentry (if any), have their ctime updated.

int simple_setattr(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct dentry *dentry, struct iattr *iattr)

setattr for simple filesystem

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the target mount

struct dentry *dentry

dentry

struct iattr *iattr

iattr structure

Description

Returns 0 on success, -error on failure.

simple_setattr is a simple ->setattr implementation without a proper implementation of size changes.

It can either be used for in-memory filesystems or special files on simple regular filesystems. Anything that needs to change on-disk or wire state on size changes needs its own setattr method.

ssize_t simple_read_from_buffer(void __user *to, size_t count, loff_t *ppos, const void *from, size_t available)

copy data from the buffer to user space

Parameters

void __user *to

the user space buffer to read to

size_t count

the maximum number of bytes to read

loff_t *ppos

the current position in the buffer

const void *from

the buffer to read from

size_t available

the size of the buffer

Description

The simple_read_from_buffer() function reads up to count bytes from the buffer from at offset ppos into the user space address starting at to.

On success, the number of bytes read is returned and the offset ppos is advanced by this number, or negative value is returned on error.

ssize_t simple_write_to_buffer(void *to, size_t available, loff_t *ppos, const void __user *from, size_t count)

copy data from user space to the buffer

Parameters

void *to

the buffer to write to

size_t available

the size of the buffer

loff_t *ppos

the current position in the buffer

const void __user *from

the user space buffer to read from

size_t count

the maximum number of bytes to read

Description

The simple_write_to_buffer() function reads up to count bytes from the user space address starting at from into the buffer to at offset ppos.

On success, the number of bytes written is returned and the offset ppos is advanced by this number, or negative value is returned on error.

ssize_t memory_read_from_buffer(void *to, size_t count, loff_t *ppos, const void *from, size_t available)

copy data from the buffer

Parameters

void *to

the kernel space buffer to read to

size_t count

the maximum number of bytes to read

loff_t *ppos

the current position in the buffer

const void *from

the buffer to read from

size_t available

the size of the buffer

Description

The memory_read_from_buffer() function reads up to count bytes from the buffer from at offset ppos into the kernel space address starting at to.

On success, the number of bytes read is returned and the offset ppos is advanced by this number, or negative value is returned on error.

int generic_encode_ino32_fh(struct inode *inode, __u32 *fh, int *max_len, struct inode *parent)

generic export_operations->encode_fh function

Parameters

struct inode *inode

the object to encode

__u32 *fh

where to store the file handle fragment

int *max_len

maximum length to store there (in 4 byte units)

struct inode *parent

parent directory inode, if wanted

Description

This generic encode_fh function assumes that the 32 inode number is suitable for locating an inode, and that the generation number can be used to check that it is still valid. It places them in the filehandle fragment where export_decode_fh expects to find them.

struct dentry *generic_fh_to_dentry(struct super_block *sb, struct fid *fid, int fh_len, int fh_type, struct inode *(*get_inode)(struct super_block *sb, u64 ino, u32 gen))

generic helper for the fh_to_dentry export operation

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

filesystem to do the file handle conversion on

struct fid *fid

file handle to convert

int fh_len

length of the file handle in bytes

int fh_type

type of file handle

struct inode *(*get_inode) (struct super_block *sb, u64 ino, u32 gen)

filesystem callback to retrieve inode

Description

This function decodes fid as long as it has one of the well-known Linux filehandle types and calls get_inode on it to retrieve the inode for the object specified in the file handle.

struct dentry *generic_fh_to_parent(struct super_block *sb, struct fid *fid, int fh_len, int fh_type, struct inode *(*get_inode)(struct super_block *sb, u64 ino, u32 gen))

generic helper for the fh_to_parent export operation

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

filesystem to do the file handle conversion on

struct fid *fid

file handle to convert

int fh_len

length of the file handle in bytes

int fh_type

type of file handle

struct inode *(*get_inode) (struct super_block *sb, u64 ino, u32 gen)

filesystem callback to retrieve inode

Description

This function decodes fid as long as it has one of the well-known Linux filehandle types and calls get_inode on it to retrieve the inode for the _parent_ object specified in the file handle if it is specified in the file handle, or NULL otherwise.

int __generic_file_fsync(struct file *file, loff_t start, loff_t end, int datasync)

generic fsync implementation for simple filesystems

Parameters

struct file *file

file to synchronize

loff_t start

start offset in bytes

loff_t end

end offset in bytes (inclusive)

int datasync

only synchronize essential metadata if true

Description

This is a generic implementation of the fsync method for simple filesystems which track all non-inode metadata in the buffers list hanging off the address_space structure.

int generic_file_fsync(struct file *file, loff_t start, loff_t end, int datasync)

generic fsync implementation for simple filesystems with flush

Parameters

struct file *file

file to synchronize

loff_t start

start offset in bytes

loff_t end

end offset in bytes (inclusive)

int datasync

only synchronize essential metadata if true

int generic_check_addressable(unsigned blocksize_bits, u64 num_blocks)

Check addressability of file system

Parameters

unsigned blocksize_bits

log of file system block size

u64 num_blocks

number of blocks in file system

Description

Determine whether a file system with num_blocks blocks (and a block size of 2****blocksize_bits**) is addressable by the sector_t and page cache of the system. Return 0 if so and -EFBIG otherwise.

int simple_nosetlease(struct file *filp, int arg, struct file_lease **flp, void **priv)

generic helper for prohibiting leases

Parameters

struct file *filp

file pointer

int arg

type of lease to obtain

struct file_lease **flp

new lease supplied for insertion

void **priv

private data for lm_setup operation

Description

Generic helper for filesystems that do not wish to allow leases to be set. All arguments are ignored and it just returns -EINVAL.

generic helper to get the target of “fast” symlinks

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

not used here

struct inode *inode

the symlink inode

struct delayed_call *done

not used here

Description

Generic helper for filesystems to use for symlink inodes where a pointer to the symlink target is stored in ->i_link. NOTE: this isn’t normally called, since as an optimization the path lookup code uses any non-NULL ->i_link directly, without calling ->get_link(). But ->get_link() still must be set, to mark the inode_operations as being for a symlink.

Return

the symlink target

int generic_ci_match(const struct inode *parent, const struct qstr *name, const struct qstr *folded_name, const u8 *de_name, u32 de_name_len)

Match a name (case-insensitively) with a dirent. This is a filesystem helper for comparison with directory entries. generic_ci_d_compare should be used in VFS’ ->d_compare instead.

Parameters

const struct inode *parent

Inode of the parent of the dirent under comparison

const struct qstr *name

name under lookup.

const struct qstr *folded_name

Optional pre-folded name under lookup

const u8 *de_name

Dirent name.

u32 de_name_len

dirent name length.

Description

Test whether a case-insensitive directory entry matches the filename being searched. If folded_name is provided, it is used instead of recalculating the casefold of name.

Return

> 0 if the directory entry matches, 0 if it doesn’t match, or < 0 on error.

void generic_set_sb_d_ops(struct super_block *sb)

helper for choosing the set of filesystem-wide dentry operations for the enabled features

Parameters

struct super_block *sb

superblock to be configured

Description

Filesystems supporting casefolding and/or fscrypt can call this helper at mount-time to configure sb->s_d_op to best set of dentry operations required for the enabled features. The helper must be called after these have been configured, but before the root dentry is created.

bool inode_maybe_inc_iversion(struct inode *inode, bool force)

increments i_version

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode with the i_version that should be updated

bool force

increment the counter even if it’s not necessary?

Description

Every time the inode is modified, the i_version field must be seen to have changed by any observer.

If “force” is set or the QUERIED flag is set, then ensure that we increment the value, and clear the queried flag.

In the common case where neither is set, then we can return “false” without updating i_version.

If this function returns false, and no other metadata has changed, then we can avoid logging the metadata.

u64 inode_query_iversion(struct inode *inode)

read i_version for later use

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode from which i_version should be read

Description

Read the inode i_version counter. This should be used by callers that wish to store the returned i_version for later comparison. This will guarantee that a later query of the i_version will result in a different value if anything has changed.

In this implementation, we fetch the current value, set the QUERIED flag and then try to swap it into place with a cmpxchg, if it wasn’t already set. If that fails, we try again with the newly fetched value from the cmpxchg.

struct timespec64 simple_inode_init_ts(struct inode *inode)

initialize the timestamps for a new inode

Parameters

struct inode *inode

inode to be initialized

Description

When a new inode is created, most filesystems set the timestamps to the current time. Add a helper to do this.

int posix_acl_chmod(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct dentry *dentry, umode_t mode)

chmod a posix acl

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount inode was found from

struct dentry *dentry

dentry to check permissions on

umode_t mode

the new mode of inode

Description

If the dentry has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

int posix_acl_update_mode(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct inode *inode, umode_t *mode_p, struct posix_acl **acl)

update mode in set_acl

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount inode was found from

struct inode *inode

target inode

umode_t *mode_p

mode (pointer) for update

struct posix_acl **acl

acl pointer

Description

Update the file mode when setting an ACL: compute the new file permission bits based on the ACL. In addition, if the ACL is equivalent to the new file mode, set *acl to NULL to indicate that no ACL should be set.

As with chmod, clear the setgid bit if the caller is not in the owning group or capable of CAP_FSETID (see inode_change_ok).

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before checking permissions. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

Called from set_acl inode operations.

struct posix_acl *posix_acl_from_xattr(struct user_namespace *userns, const void *value, size_t size)

convert POSIX ACLs from backing store to VFS format

Parameters

struct user_namespace *userns

the filesystem’s idmapping

const void *value

the uapi representation of POSIX ACLs

size_t size

the size of void

Description

Filesystems that store POSIX ACLs in the unaltered uapi format should use posix_acl_from_xattr() when reading them from the backing store and converting them into the struct posix_acl VFS format. The helper is specifically intended to be called from the acl inode operation.

The posix_acl_from_xattr() function will map the raw {g,u}id values stored in ACL_{GROUP,USER} entries into idmapping in userns.

Note that posix_acl_from_xattr() does not take idmapped mounts into account. If it did it calling it from the get acl inode operation would return POSIX ACLs mapped according to an idmapped mount which would mean that the value couldn’t be cached for the filesystem. Idmapped mounts are taken into account on the fly during permission checking or right at the VFS - userspace boundary before reporting them to the user.

Return

Allocated struct posix_acl on success, NULL for a valid header but

without actual POSIX ACL entries, or ERR_PTR() encoded error code.

int vfs_set_acl(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct dentry *dentry, const char *acl_name, struct posix_acl *kacl)

set posix acls

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount

struct dentry *dentry

the dentry based on which to set the posix acls

const char *acl_name

the name of the posix acl

struct posix_acl *kacl

the posix acls in the appropriate VFS format

Description

This function sets kacl. The caller must all posix_acl_release() on kacl afterwards.

Return

On success 0, on error negative errno.

struct posix_acl *vfs_get_acl(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct dentry *dentry, const char *acl_name)

get posix acls

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount

struct dentry *dentry

the dentry based on which to retrieve the posix acls

const char *acl_name

the name of the posix acl

Description

This function retrieves kacl from the filesystem. The caller must all posix_acl_release() on kacl.

Return

On success POSIX ACLs in VFS format, on error negative errno.

int vfs_remove_acl(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct dentry *dentry, const char *acl_name)

remove posix acls

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount

struct dentry *dentry

the dentry based on which to retrieve the posix acls

const char *acl_name

the name of the posix acl

Description

This function removes posix acls.

Return

On success 0, on error negative errno.

void generic_fillattr(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, u32 request_mask, struct inode *inode, struct kstat *stat)

Fill in the basic attributes from the inode struct

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount the inode was found from

u32 request_mask

statx request_mask

struct inode *inode

Inode to use as the source

struct kstat *stat

Where to fill in the attributes

Description

Fill in the basic attributes in the kstat structure from data that’s to be found on the VFS inode structure. This is the default if no getattr inode operation is supplied.

If the inode has been found through an idmapped mount the idmap of the vfsmount must be passed through idmap. This function will then take care to map the inode according to idmap before filling in the uid and gid filds. On non-idmapped mounts or if permission checking is to be performed on the raw inode simply pass nop_mnt_idmap.

void generic_fill_statx_attr(struct inode *inode, struct kstat *stat)

Fill in the statx attributes from the inode flags

Parameters

struct inode *inode

Inode to use as the source

struct kstat *stat

Where to fill in the attribute flags

Description

Fill in the STATX_ATTR_* flags in the kstat structure for properties of the inode that are published on i_flags and enforced by the VFS.

int vfs_getattr_nosec(const struct path *path, struct kstat *stat, u32 request_mask, unsigned int query_flags)

getattr without security checks

Parameters

const struct path *path

file to get attributes from

struct kstat *stat

structure to return attributes in

u32 request_mask

STATX_xxx flags indicating what the caller wants

unsigned int query_flags

Query mode (AT_STATX_SYNC_TYPE)

Description

Get attributes without calling security_inode_getattr.

Currently the only caller other than vfs_getattr is internal to the filehandle lookup code, which uses only the inode number and returns no attributes to any user. Any other code probably wants vfs_getattr.

int vfs_fsync_range(struct file *file, loff_t start, loff_t end, int datasync)

helper to sync a range of data & metadata to disk

Parameters

struct file *file

file to sync

loff_t start

offset in bytes of the beginning of data range to sync

loff_t end

offset in bytes of the end of data range (inclusive)

int datasync

perform only datasync

Description

Write back data in range start..**end** and metadata for file to disk. If datasync is set only metadata needed to access modified file data is written.

int vfs_fsync(struct file *file, int datasync)

perform a fsync or fdatasync on a file

Parameters

struct file *file

file to sync

int datasync

only perform a fdatasync operation

Description

Write back data and metadata for file to disk. If datasync is set only metadata needed to access modified file data is written.

int __vfs_setxattr_locked(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct dentry *dentry, const char *name, const void *value, size_t size, int flags, struct inode **delegated_inode)

set an extended attribute while holding the inode lock

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount of the target inode

struct dentry *dentry

object to perform setxattr on

const char *name

xattr name to set

const void *value

value to set name to

size_t size

size of value

int flags

flags to pass into filesystem operations

struct inode **delegated_inode

on return, will contain an inode pointer that a delegation was broken on, NULL if none.

ssize_t vfs_listxattr(struct dentry *dentry, char *list, size_t size)

retrieve 0 separated list of xattr names

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

the dentry from whose inode the xattr names are retrieved

char *list

buffer to store xattr names into

size_t size

size of the buffer

Description

This function returns the names of all xattrs associated with the inode of dentry.

Note, for legacy reasons the vfs_listxattr() function lists POSIX ACLs as well. Since POSIX ACLs are decoupled from IOP_XATTR the vfs_listxattr() function doesn’t check for this flag since a filesystem could implement POSIX ACLs without implementing any other xattrs.

However, since all codepaths that remove IOP_XATTR also assign of inode operations that either don’t implement or implement a stub ->listxattr() operation.

Return

On success, the size of the buffer that was used. On error a

negative error code.

int __vfs_removexattr_locked(struct mnt_idmap *idmap, struct dentry *dentry, const char *name, struct inode **delegated_inode)

set an extended attribute while holding the inode lock

Parameters

struct mnt_idmap *idmap

idmap of the mount of the target inode

struct dentry *dentry

object to perform setxattr on

const char *name

name of xattr to remove

struct inode **delegated_inode

on return, will contain an inode pointer that a delegation was broken on, NULL if none.

ssize_t generic_listxattr(struct dentry *dentry, char *buffer, size_t buffer_size)

run through a dentry’s xattr list() operations

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

dentry to list the xattrs

char *buffer

result buffer

size_t buffer_size

size of buffer

Description

Combine the results of the list() operation from every xattr_handler in the xattr_handler stack.

Note that this will not include the entries for POSIX ACLs.

const char *xattr_full_name(const struct xattr_handler *handler, const char *name)

Compute full attribute name from suffix

Parameters

const struct xattr_handler *handler

handler of the xattr_handler operation

const char *name

name passed to the xattr_handler operation

Description

The get and set xattr handler operations are called with the remainder of the attribute name after skipping the handler’s prefix: for example, “foo” is passed to the get operation of a handler with prefix “user.” to get attribute “user.foo”. The full name is still “there” in the name though.

Note

the list xattr handler operation when called from the vfs is passed a NULL name; some file systems use this operation internally, with varying semantics.

int mnt_get_write_access(struct vfsmount *m)

get write access to a mount without freeze protection

Parameters

struct vfsmount *m

the mount on which to take a write

Description

This tells the low-level filesystem that a write is about to be performed to it, and makes sure that writes are allowed (mnt it read-write) before returning success. This operation does not protect against filesystem being frozen. When the write operation is finished, mnt_put_write_access() must be called. This is effectively a refcount.

int mnt_want_write(struct vfsmount *m)

get write access to a mount

Parameters

struct vfsmount *m

the mount on which to take a write

Description

This tells the low-level filesystem that a write is about to be performed to it, and makes sure that writes are allowed (mount is read-write, filesystem is not frozen) before returning success. When the write operation is finished, mnt_drop_write() must be called. This is effectively a refcount.

int mnt_want_write_file(struct file *file)

get write access to a file’s mount

Parameters

struct file *file

the file who’s mount on which to take a write

Description

This is like mnt_want_write, but if the file is already open for writing it skips incrementing mnt_writers (since the open file already has a reference) and instead only does the freeze protection and the check for emergency r/o remounts. This must be paired with mnt_drop_write_file.

void mnt_put_write_access(struct vfsmount *mnt)

give up write access to a mount

Parameters

struct vfsmount *mnt

the mount on which to give up write access

Description

Tells the low-level filesystem that we are done performing writes to it. Must be matched with mnt_get_write_access() call above.

void mnt_drop_write(struct vfsmount *mnt)

give up write access to a mount

Parameters

struct vfsmount *mnt

the mount on which to give up write access

Description

Tells the low-level filesystem that we are done performing writes to it and also allows filesystem to be frozen again. Must be matched with mnt_want_write() call above.

struct vfsmount *vfs_create_mount(struct fs_context *fc)

Create a mount for a configured superblock

Parameters

struct fs_context *fc

The configuration context with the superblock attached

Description

Create a mount to an already configured superblock. If necessary, the caller should invoke vfs_get_tree() before calling this.

Note that this does not attach the mount to anything.

bool path_is_mountpoint(const struct path *path)

Check if path is a mount in the current namespace.

Parameters

const struct path *path

path to check

d_mountpoint() can only be used reliably to establish if a dentry is not mounted in any namespace and that common case is handled inline. d_mountpoint() isn’t aware of the possibility there may be multiple mounts using a given dentry in a different namespace. This function checks if the passed in path is a mountpoint rather than the dentry alone.

int may_umount_tree(struct vfsmount *m)

check if a mount tree is busy

Parameters

struct vfsmount *m

root of mount tree

Description

This is called to check if a tree of mounts has any open files, pwds, chroots or sub mounts that are busy.

int may_umount(struct vfsmount *mnt)

check if a mount point is busy

Parameters

struct vfsmount *mnt

root of mount

Description

This is called to check if a mount point has any open files, pwds, chroots or sub mounts. If the mount has sub mounts this will return busy regardless of whether the sub mounts are busy.

Doesn’t take quota and stuff into account. IOW, in some cases it will give false negatives. The main reason why it’s here is that we need a non-destructive way to look for easily umountable filesystems.

struct vfsmount *clone_private_mount(const struct path *path)

create a private clone of a path

Parameters

const struct path *path

path to clone

Description

This creates a new vfsmount, which will be the clone of path. The new mount will not be attached anywhere in the namespace and will be private (i.e. changes to the originating mount won’t be propagated into this).

Release with mntput().

void mnt_set_expiry(struct vfsmount *mnt, struct list_head *expiry_list)

Put a mount on an expiration list

Parameters

struct vfsmount *mnt

The mount to list.

struct list_head *expiry_list

The list to add the mount to.

The proc filesystem

sysctl interface

int proc_dostring(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a string sysctl

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes a string from/to the user buffer. If the kernel buffer provided is not large enough to hold the string, the string is truncated. The copied string is NULL-terminated. If the string is being read by the user process, it is copied and a newline ‘n’ is added. It is truncated if the buffer is not large enough.

Returns 0 on success.

int proc_dobool(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read/write a bool

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes one integer value from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string.

table->data must point to a bool variable and table->maxlen must be sizeof(bool).

Returns 0 on success.

int proc_dointvec(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of integers

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(unsigned int) integer values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string.

Returns 0 on success.

int proc_douintvec(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of unsigned integers

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(unsigned int) unsigned integer values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string.

Returns 0 on success.

int proc_dointvec_minmax(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of integers with min/max values

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(unsigned int) integer values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string.

This routine will ensure the values are within the range specified by table->extra1 (min) and table->extra2 (max).

Returns 0 on success or -EINVAL on write when the range check fails.

int proc_douintvec_minmax(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of unsigned ints with min/max values

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(unsigned int) unsigned integer values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string. Negative strings are not allowed.

This routine will ensure the values are within the range specified by table->extra1 (min) and table->extra2 (max). There is a final sanity check for UINT_MAX to avoid having to support wrap around uses from userspace.

Returns 0 on success or -ERANGE on write when the range check fails.

int proc_dou8vec_minmax(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of unsigned chars with min/max values

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(u8) unsigned chars values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string. Negative strings are not allowed.

This routine will ensure the values are within the range specified by table->extra1 (min) and table->extra2 (max).

Returns 0 on success or an error on write when the range check fails.

int proc_doulongvec_minmax(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of long integers with min/max values

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(unsigned long) unsigned long values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string.

This routine will ensure the values are within the range specified by table->extra1 (min) and table->extra2 (max).

Returns 0 on success.

int proc_doulongvec_ms_jiffies_minmax(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of millisecond values with min/max values

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(unsigned long) unsigned long values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string. The values are treated as milliseconds, and converted to jiffies when they are stored.

This routine will ensure the values are within the range specified by table->extra1 (min) and table->extra2 (max).

Returns 0 on success.

int proc_dointvec_jiffies(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of integers as seconds

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(unsigned int) integer values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string. The values read are assumed to be in seconds, and are converted into jiffies.

Returns 0 on success.

int proc_dointvec_userhz_jiffies(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of integers as 1/USER_HZ seconds

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

pointer to the file position

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(unsigned int) integer values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string. The values read are assumed to be in 1/USER_HZ seconds, and are converted into jiffies.

Returns 0 on success.

int proc_dointvec_ms_jiffies(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read a vector of integers as 1 milliseconds

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

the current position in the file

Description

Reads/writes up to table->maxlen/sizeof(unsigned int) integer values from/to the user buffer, treated as an ASCII string. The values read are assumed to be in 1/1000 seconds, and are converted into jiffies.

Returns 0 on success.

int proc_do_large_bitmap(struct ctl_table *table, int write, void *buffer, size_t *lenp, loff_t *ppos)

read/write from/to a large bitmap

Parameters

struct ctl_table *table

the sysctl table

int write

TRUE if this is a write to the sysctl file

void *buffer

the user buffer

size_t *lenp

the size of the user buffer

loff_t *ppos

file position

Description

The bitmap is stored at table->data and the bitmap length (in bits) in table->maxlen.

We use a range comma separated format (e.g. 1,3-4,10-10) so that large bitmaps may be represented in a compact manner. Writing into the file will clear the bitmap then update it with the given input.

Returns 0 on success.

proc filesystem interface

void proc_flush_pid(struct pid *pid)

Remove dcache entries for pid from the /proc dcache.

Parameters

struct pid *pid

pid that should be flushed.

Description

This function walks a list of inodes (that belong to any proc filesystem) that are attached to the pid and flushes them from the dentry cache.

It is safe and reasonable to cache /proc entries for a task until that task exits. After that they just clog up the dcache with useless entries, possibly causing useful dcache entries to be flushed instead. This routine is provided to flush those useless dcache entries when a process is reaped.

NOTE

This routine is just an optimization so it does not guarantee

that no dcache entries will exist after a process is reaped it just makes it very unlikely that any will persist.

Events based on file descriptors

void eventfd_signal_mask(struct eventfd_ctx *ctx, __poll_t mask)

Increment the event counter

Parameters

struct eventfd_ctx *ctx

[in] Pointer to the eventfd context.

__poll_t mask

[in] poll mask

Description

This function is supposed to be called by the kernel in paths that do not allow sleeping. In this function we allow the counter to reach the ULLONG_MAX value, and we signal this as overflow condition by returning a EPOLLERR to poll(2).

void eventfd_ctx_put(struct eventfd_ctx *ctx)

Releases a reference to the internal eventfd context.

Parameters

struct eventfd_ctx *ctx

[in] Pointer to eventfd context.

Description

The eventfd context reference must have been previously acquired either with eventfd_ctx_fdget() or eventfd_ctx_fileget().

int eventfd_ctx_remove_wait_queue(struct eventfd_ctx *ctx, wait_queue_entry_t *wait, __u64 *cnt)

Read the current counter and removes wait queue.

Parameters

struct eventfd_ctx *ctx

[in] Pointer to eventfd context.

wait_queue_entry_t *wait

[in] Wait queue to be removed.

__u64 *cnt

[out] Pointer to the 64-bit counter value.

Description

Returns 0 if successful, or the following error codes:

-EAGAIN

: The operation would have blocked.

This is used to atomically remove a wait queue entry from the eventfd wait queue head, and read/reset the counter value.

struct file *eventfd_fget(int fd)

Acquire a reference of an eventfd file descriptor.

Parameters

int fd

[in] Eventfd file descriptor.

Description

Returns a pointer to the eventfd file structure in case of success, or the following error pointer:

-EBADF

: Invalid fd file descriptor.

-EINVAL

: The fd file descriptor is not an eventfd file.

struct eventfd_ctx *eventfd_ctx_fdget(int fd)

Acquires a reference to the internal eventfd context.

Parameters

int fd

[in] Eventfd file descriptor.

Description

Returns a pointer to the internal eventfd context, otherwise the error pointers returned by the following functions:

eventfd_fget

struct eventfd_ctx *eventfd_ctx_fileget(struct file *file)

Acquires a reference to the internal eventfd context.

Parameters

struct file *file

[in] Eventfd file pointer.

Description

Returns a pointer to the internal eventfd context, otherwise the error pointer:

-EINVAL

: The fd file descriptor is not an eventfd file.

eventpoll (epoll) interfaces

int ep_events_available(struct eventpoll *ep)

Checks if ready events might be available.

Parameters

struct eventpoll *ep

Pointer to the eventpoll context.

Return

a value different than zero if ready events are available,

or zero otherwise.

bool busy_loop_ep_timeout(unsigned long start_time, struct eventpoll *ep)

check if busy poll has timed out. The timeout value from the epoll instance ep is preferred, but if it is not set fallback to the system-wide global via busy_loop_timeout.

Parameters

unsigned long start_time

The start time used to compute the remaining time until timeout.

struct eventpoll *ep

Pointer to the eventpoll context.

Return

true if the timeout has expired, false otherwise.

int reverse_path_check(void)

The tfile_check_list is list of epitem_head, which have links that are proposed to be newly added. We need to make sure that those added links don’t add too many paths such that we will spend all our time waking up eventpoll objects.

Parameters

void

no arguments

Return

zero if the proposed links don’t create too many paths,

-1 otherwise.

int ep_poll(struct eventpoll *ep, struct epoll_event __user *events, int maxevents, struct timespec64 *timeout)

Retrieves ready events, and delivers them to the caller-supplied event buffer.

Parameters

struct eventpoll *ep

Pointer to the eventpoll context.

struct epoll_event __user *events

Pointer to the userspace buffer where the ready events should be stored.

int maxevents

Size (in terms of number of events) of the caller event buffer.

struct timespec64 *timeout

Maximum timeout for the ready events fetch operation, in timespec. If the timeout is zero, the function will not block, while if the timeout ptr is NULL, the function will block until at least one event has been retrieved (or an error occurred).

Return

the number of ready events which have been fetched, or an

error code, in case of error.

int ep_loop_check_proc(struct eventpoll *ep, int depth)

verify that adding an epoll file inside another epoll structure does not violate the constraints, in terms of closed loops, or too deep chains (which can result in excessive stack usage).

Parameters

struct eventpoll *ep

the struct eventpoll to be currently checked.

int depth

Current depth of the path being checked.

Return

zero if adding the epoll file inside current epoll

structure ep does not violate the constraints, or -1 otherwise.

int ep_loop_check(struct eventpoll *ep, struct eventpoll *to)

Performs a check to verify that adding an epoll file (to) into another epoll file (represented by ep) does not create closed loops or too deep chains.

Parameters

struct eventpoll *ep

Pointer to the epoll we are inserting into.

struct eventpoll *to

Pointer to the epoll to be inserted.

Return

zero if adding the epoll to inside the epoll from does not violate the constraints, or -1 otherwise.

The Filesystem for Exporting Kernel Objects

int sysfs_create_file_ns(struct kobject *kobj, const struct attribute *attr, const void *ns)

create an attribute file for an object with custom ns

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object we’re creating for

const struct attribute *attr

attribute descriptor

const void *ns

namespace the new file should belong to

int sysfs_add_file_to_group(struct kobject *kobj, const struct attribute *attr, const char *group)

add an attribute file to a pre-existing group.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object we’re acting for.

const struct attribute *attr

attribute descriptor.

const char *group

group name.

int sysfs_chmod_file(struct kobject *kobj, const struct attribute *attr, umode_t mode)

update the modified mode value on an object attribute.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object we’re acting for.

const struct attribute *attr

attribute descriptor.

umode_t mode

file permissions.

struct kernfs_node *sysfs_break_active_protection(struct kobject *kobj, const struct attribute *attr)

break “active” protection

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

The kernel object attr is associated with.

const struct attribute *attr

The attribute to break the “active” protection for.

Description

With sysfs, just like kernfs, deletion of an attribute is postponed until all active .show() and .store() callbacks have finished unless this function is called. Hence this function is useful in methods that implement self deletion.

void sysfs_unbreak_active_protection(struct kernfs_node *kn)

restore “active” protection

Parameters

struct kernfs_node *kn

Pointer returned by sysfs_break_active_protection().

Description

Undo the effects of sysfs_break_active_protection(). Since this function calls kernfs_put() on the kernfs node that corresponds to the ‘attr’ argument passed to sysfs_break_active_protection() that attribute may have been removed between the sysfs_break_active_protection() and sysfs_unbreak_active_protection() calls, it is not safe to access kn after this function has returned.

void sysfs_remove_file_ns(struct kobject *kobj, const struct attribute *attr, const void *ns)

remove an object attribute with a custom ns tag

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object we’re acting for

const struct attribute *attr

attribute descriptor

const void *ns

namespace tag of the file to remove

Description

Hash the attribute name and namespace tag and kill the victim.

bool sysfs_remove_file_self(struct kobject *kobj, const struct attribute *attr)

remove an object attribute from its own method

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object we’re acting for

const struct attribute *attr

attribute descriptor

Description

See kernfs_remove_self() for details.

void sysfs_remove_file_from_group(struct kobject *kobj, const struct attribute *attr, const char *group)

remove an attribute file from a group.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object we’re acting for.

const struct attribute *attr

attribute descriptor.

const char *group

group name.

int sysfs_create_bin_file(struct kobject *kobj, const struct bin_attribute *attr)

create binary file for object.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object.

const struct bin_attribute *attr

attribute descriptor.

void sysfs_remove_bin_file(struct kobject *kobj, const struct bin_attribute *attr)

remove binary file for object.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object.

const struct bin_attribute *attr

attribute descriptor.

int sysfs_file_change_owner(struct kobject *kobj, const char *name, kuid_t kuid, kgid_t kgid)

change owner of a sysfs file.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object.

const char *name

name of the file to change.

kuid_t kuid

new owner’s kuid

kgid_t kgid

new owner’s kgid

Description

This function looks up the sysfs entry name under kobj and changes the ownership to kuid/kgid.

Returns 0 on success or error code on failure.

int sysfs_change_owner(struct kobject *kobj, kuid_t kuid, kgid_t kgid)

change owner of the given object.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object.

kuid_t kuid

new owner’s kuid

kgid_t kgid

new owner’s kgid

Description

Change the owner of the default directory, files, groups, and attributes of kobj to kuid/kgid. Note that sysfs_change_owner mirrors how the sysfs entries for a kobject are added by driver core. In summary, sysfs_change_owner() takes care of the default directory entry for kobj, the default attributes associated with the ktype of kobj and the default attributes associated with the ktype of kobj. Additional properties not added by driver core have to be changed by the driver or subsystem which created them. This is similar to how driver/subsystem specific entries are removed.

Returns 0 on success or error code on failure.

int sysfs_emit(char *buf, const char *fmt, ...)

scnprintf equivalent, aware of PAGE_SIZE buffer.

Parameters

char *buf

start of PAGE_SIZE buffer.

const char *fmt

format

...

optional arguments to format

Description

Returns number of characters written to buf.

int sysfs_emit_at(char *buf, int at, const char *fmt, ...)

scnprintf equivalent, aware of PAGE_SIZE buffer.

Parameters

char *buf

start of PAGE_SIZE buffer.

int at

offset in buf to start write in bytes at must be >= 0 && < PAGE_SIZE

const char *fmt

format

...

optional arguments to fmt

Description

Returns number of characters written starting at &**buf**[at].

ssize_t sysfs_bin_attr_simple_read(struct file *file, struct kobject *kobj, struct bin_attribute *attr, char *buf, loff_t off, size_t count)

read callback to simply copy from memory.

Parameters

struct file *file

attribute file which is being read.

struct kobject *kobj

object to which the attribute belongs.

struct bin_attribute *attr

attribute descriptor.

char *buf

destination buffer.

loff_t off

offset in bytes from which to read.

size_t count

maximum number of bytes to read.

Description

Simple ->read() callback for bin_attributes backed by a buffer in memory. The private and size members in struct bin_attribute must be set to the buffer’s location and size before the bin_attribute is created in sysfs.

Bounds check for off and count is done in sysfs_kf_bin_read(). Negative value check for off is done in vfs_setpos() and default_llseek().

Returns number of bytes written to buf.

create symlink between two objects.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object whose directory we’re creating the link in.

struct kobject *target

object we’re pointing to.

const char *name

name of the symlink.

create symlink between two objects.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object whose directory we’re creating the link in.

struct kobject *target

object we’re pointing to.

const char *name

name of the symlink.

This function does the same as sysfs_create_link(), but it doesn’t warn if the link already exists.

remove symlink in object’s directory.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object we’re acting for.

const char *name

name of the symlink to remove.

rename symlink in object’s directory.

Parameters

struct kobject *kobj

object we’re acting for.

struct kobject *targ

object we’re pointing to.

const char *old

previous name of the symlink.

const char *new

new name of the symlink.

const void *new_ns

new namespace of the symlink.

A helper function for the common rename symlink idiom.

The debugfs filesystem

debugfs interface

struct dentry *debugfs_lookup(const char *name, struct dentry *parent)

look up an existing debugfs file

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to look up.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry of the file.

Description

This function will return a pointer to a dentry if it succeeds. If the file doesn’t exist or an error occurs, NULL will be returned. The returned dentry must be passed to dput() when it is no longer needed.

If debugfs is not enabled in the kernel, the value -ENODEV will be returned.

struct dentry *debugfs_create_file(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, void *data, const struct file_operations *fops)

create a file in the debugfs filesystem

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

void *data

a pointer to something that the caller will want to get to later on. The inode.i_private pointer will point to this value on the open() call.

const struct file_operations *fops

a pointer to a struct file_operations that should be used for this file.

Description

This is the basic “create a file” function for debugfs. It allows for a wide range of flexibility in creating a file, or a directory (if you want to create a directory, the debugfs_create_dir() function is recommended to be used instead.)

This function will return a pointer to a dentry if it succeeds. This pointer must be passed to the debugfs_remove() function when the file is to be removed (no automatic cleanup happens if your module is unloaded, you are responsible here.) If an error occurs, ERR_PTR(-ERROR) will be returned.

If debugfs is not enabled in the kernel, the value -ENODEV will be returned.

NOTE

it’s expected that most callers should _ignore_ the errors returned by this function. Other debugfs functions handle the fact that the “dentry” passed to them could be an error and they don’t crash in that case. Drivers should generally work fine even if debugfs fails to init anyway.

struct dentry *debugfs_create_file_unsafe(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, void *data, const struct file_operations *fops)

create a file in the debugfs filesystem

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

void *data

a pointer to something that the caller will want to get to later on. The inode.i_private pointer will point to this value on the open() call.

const struct file_operations *fops

a pointer to a struct file_operations that should be used for this file.

Description

debugfs_create_file_unsafe() is completely analogous to debugfs_create_file(), the only difference being that the fops handed it will not get protected against file removals by the debugfs core.

It is your responsibility to protect your struct file_operation methods against file removals by means of debugfs_file_get() and debugfs_file_put(). ->open() is still protected by debugfs though.

Any struct file_operations defined by means of DEFINE_DEBUGFS_ATTRIBUTE() is protected against file removals and thus, may be used here.

void debugfs_create_file_size(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, void *data, const struct file_operations *fops, loff_t file_size)

create a file in the debugfs filesystem

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

void *data

a pointer to something that the caller will want to get to later on. The inode.i_private pointer will point to this value on the open() call.

const struct file_operations *fops

a pointer to a struct file_operations that should be used for this file.

loff_t file_size

initial file size

Description

This is the basic “create a file” function for debugfs. It allows for a wide range of flexibility in creating a file, or a directory (if you want to create a directory, the debugfs_create_dir() function is recommended to be used instead.)

struct dentry *debugfs_create_dir(const char *name, struct dentry *parent)

create a directory in the debugfs filesystem

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the directory to create.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the directory will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

Description

This function creates a directory in debugfs with the given name.

This function will return a pointer to a dentry if it succeeds. This pointer must be passed to the debugfs_remove() function when the file is to be removed (no automatic cleanup happens if your module is unloaded, you are responsible here.) If an error occurs, ERR_PTR(-ERROR) will be returned.

If debugfs is not enabled in the kernel, the value -ENODEV will be returned.

NOTE

it’s expected that most callers should _ignore_ the errors returned by this function. Other debugfs functions handle the fact that the “dentry” passed to them could be an error and they don’t crash in that case. Drivers should generally work fine even if debugfs fails to init anyway.

struct dentry *debugfs_create_automount(const char *name, struct dentry *parent, debugfs_automount_t f, void *data)

create automount point in the debugfs filesystem

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

debugfs_automount_t f

function to be called when pathname resolution steps on that one.

void *data

opaque argument to pass to f().

Description

f should return what ->d_automount() would.

create a symbolic link in the debugfs filesystem

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the symbolic link to create.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this symbolic link. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the symbolic link will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

const char *target

a pointer to a string containing the path to the target of the symbolic link.

Description

This function creates a symbolic link with the given name in debugfs that links to the given target path.

This function will return a pointer to a dentry if it succeeds. This pointer must be passed to the debugfs_remove() function when the symbolic link is to be removed (no automatic cleanup happens if your module is unloaded, you are responsible here.) If an error occurs, ERR_PTR(-ERROR) will be returned.

If debugfs is not enabled in the kernel, the value -ENODEV will be returned.

void debugfs_remove(struct dentry *dentry)

recursively removes a directory

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

a pointer to a the dentry of the directory to be removed. If this parameter is NULL or an error value, nothing will be done.

Description

This function recursively removes a directory tree in debugfs that was previously created with a call to another debugfs function (like debugfs_create_file() or variants thereof.)

This function is required to be called in order for the file to be removed, no automatic cleanup of files will happen when a module is removed, you are responsible here.

void debugfs_lookup_and_remove(const char *name, struct dentry *parent)

lookup a directory or file and recursively remove it

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the item to look up.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry of the item.

Description

This is the equlivant of doing something like debugfs_remove(debugfs_lookup(..)) but with the proper reference counting handled for the directory being looked up.

struct dentry *debugfs_rename(struct dentry *old_dir, struct dentry *old_dentry, struct dentry *new_dir, const char *new_name)

rename a file/directory in the debugfs filesystem

Parameters

struct dentry *old_dir

a pointer to the parent dentry for the renamed object. This should be a directory dentry.

struct dentry *old_dentry

dentry of an object to be renamed.

struct dentry *new_dir

a pointer to the parent dentry where the object should be moved. This should be a directory dentry.

const char *new_name

a pointer to a string containing the target name.

Description

This function renames a file/directory in debugfs. The target must not exist for rename to succeed.

This function will return a pointer to old_dentry (which is updated to reflect renaming) if it succeeds. If an error occurs, ERR_PTR(-ERROR) will be returned.

If debugfs is not enabled in the kernel, the value -ENODEV will be returned.

bool debugfs_initialized(void)

Tells whether debugfs has been registered

Parameters

void

no arguments

int debugfs_file_get(struct dentry *dentry)

mark the beginning of file data access

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

the dentry object whose data is being accessed.

Description

Up to a matching call to debugfs_file_put(), any successive call into the file removing functions debugfs_remove() and debugfs_remove_recursive() will block. Since associated private file data may only get freed after a successful return of any of the removal functions, you may safely access it after a successful call to debugfs_file_get() without worrying about lifetime issues.

If -EIO is returned, the file has already been removed and thus, it is not safe to access any of its data. If, on the other hand, it is allowed to access the file data, zero is returned.

void debugfs_file_put(struct dentry *dentry)

mark the end of file data access

Parameters

struct dentry *dentry

the dentry object formerly passed to debugfs_file_get().

Description

Allow any ongoing concurrent call into debugfs_remove() or debugfs_remove_recursive() blocked by a former call to debugfs_file_get() to proceed and return to its caller.

void debugfs_enter_cancellation(struct file *file, struct debugfs_cancellation *cancellation)

enter a debugfs cancellation

Parameters

struct file *file

the file being accessed

struct debugfs_cancellation *cancellation

the cancellation object, the cancel callback inside of it must be initialized

Description

When a debugfs file is removed it needs to wait for all active operations to complete. However, the operation itself may need to wait for hardware or completion of some asynchronous process or similar. As such, it may need to be cancelled to avoid long waits or even deadlocks.

This function can be used inside a debugfs handler that may need to be cancelled. As soon as this function is called, the cancellation’s ‘cancel’ callback may be called, at which point the caller should proceed to call debugfs_leave_cancellation() and leave the debugfs handler function as soon as possible. Note that the ‘cancel’ callback is only ever called in the context of some kind of debugfs_remove().

This function must be paired with debugfs_leave_cancellation().

void debugfs_leave_cancellation(struct file *file, struct debugfs_cancellation *cancellation)

leave cancellation section

Parameters

struct file *file

the file being accessed

struct debugfs_cancellation *cancellation

the cancellation previously registered with debugfs_enter_cancellation()

Description

See the documentation of debugfs_enter_cancellation().

void debugfs_create_u8(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, u8 *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an unsigned 8-bit value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

u8 *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that contains the value of the variable value. If the mode variable is so set, it can be read from, and written to.

void debugfs_create_u16(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, u16 *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an unsigned 16-bit value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

u16 *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that contains the value of the variable value. If the mode variable is so set, it can be read from, and written to.

void debugfs_create_u32(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, u32 *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an unsigned 32-bit value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

u32 *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that contains the value of the variable value. If the mode variable is so set, it can be read from, and written to.

void debugfs_create_u64(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, u64 *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an unsigned 64-bit value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

u64 *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that contains the value of the variable value. If the mode variable is so set, it can be read from, and written to.

void debugfs_create_ulong(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, unsigned long *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an unsigned long value.

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

unsigned long *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that contains the value of the variable value. If the mode variable is so set, it can be read from, and written to.

void debugfs_create_x8(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, u8 *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an unsigned 8-bit value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

u8 *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

void debugfs_create_x16(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, u16 *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an unsigned 16-bit value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

u16 *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

void debugfs_create_x32(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, u32 *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an unsigned 32-bit value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

u32 *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

void debugfs_create_x64(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, u64 *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an unsigned 64-bit value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

u64 *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

void debugfs_create_size_t(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, size_t *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an size_t value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

size_t *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

void debugfs_create_atomic_t(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, atomic_t *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write an atomic_t value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

atomic_t *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

void debugfs_create_bool(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, bool *value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write a boolean value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

bool *value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that contains the value of the variable value. If the mode variable is so set, it can be read from, and written to.

void debugfs_create_str(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, char **value)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write a string value

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

char **value

a pointer to the variable that the file should read to and write from.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that contains the value of the variable value. If the mode variable is so set, it can be read from, and written to.

struct dentry *debugfs_create_blob(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, struct debugfs_blob_wrapper *blob)

create a debugfs file that is used to read and write a binary blob

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

struct debugfs_blob_wrapper *blob

a pointer to a struct debugfs_blob_wrapper which contains a pointer to the blob data and the size of the data.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that exports blob->data as a binary blob. If the mode variable is so set it can be read from and written to.

This function will return a pointer to a dentry if it succeeds. This pointer must be passed to the debugfs_remove() function when the file is to be removed (no automatic cleanup happens if your module is unloaded, you are responsible here.) If an error occurs, ERR_PTR(-ERROR) will be returned.

If debugfs is not enabled in the kernel, the value ERR_PTR(-ENODEV) will be returned.

void debugfs_create_u32_array(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, struct debugfs_u32_array *array)

create a debugfs file that is used to read u32 array.

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

struct debugfs_u32_array *array

wrapper struct containing data pointer and size of the array.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that exports array as data. If the mode variable is so set it can be read from. Writing is not supported. Seek within the file is also not supported. Once array is created its size can not be changed.

void debugfs_print_regs32(struct seq_file *s, const struct debugfs_reg32 *regs, int nregs, void __iomem *base, char *prefix)

use seq_print to describe a set of registers

Parameters

struct seq_file *s

the seq_file structure being used to generate output

const struct debugfs_reg32 *regs

an array if struct debugfs_reg32 structures

int nregs

the length of the above array

void __iomem *base

the base address to be used in reading the registers

char *prefix

a string to be prefixed to every output line

Description

This function outputs a text block describing the current values of some 32-bit hardware registers. It is meant to be used within debugfs files based on seq_file that need to show registers, intermixed with other information. The prefix argument may be used to specify a leading string, because some peripherals have several blocks of identical registers, for example configuration of dma channels

void debugfs_create_regset32(const char *name, umode_t mode, struct dentry *parent, struct debugfs_regset32 *regset)

create a debugfs file that returns register values

Parameters

const char *name

a pointer to a string containing the name of the file to create.

umode_t mode

the permission that the file should have

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

struct debugfs_regset32 *regset

a pointer to a struct debugfs_regset32, which contains a pointer to an array of register definitions, the array size and the base address where the register bank is to be found.

Description

This function creates a file in debugfs with the given name that reports the names and values of a set of 32-bit registers. If the mode variable is so set it can be read from. Writing is not supported.

void debugfs_create_devm_seqfile(struct device *dev, const char *name, struct dentry *parent, int (*read_fn)(struct seq_file *s, void *data))

create a debugfs file that is bound to device.

Parameters

struct device *dev

device related to this debugfs file.

const char *name

name of the debugfs file.

struct dentry *parent

a pointer to the parent dentry for this file. This should be a directory dentry if set. If this parameter is NULL, then the file will be created in the root of the debugfs filesystem.

int (*read_fn)(struct seq_file *s, void *data)

function pointer called to print the seq_file content.