Detailed Usages

DAMON provides below interfaces for different users.

  • DAMON user space tool. This is for privileged people such as system administrators who want a just-working human-friendly interface. Using this, users can use the DAMON’s major features in a human-friendly way. It may not be highly tuned for special cases, though. For more detail, please refer to its usage document.

  • sysfs interface. This is for privileged user space programmers who want more optimized use of DAMON. Using this, users can use DAMON’s major features by reading from and writing to special sysfs files. Therefore, you can write and use your personalized DAMON sysfs wrapper programs that reads/writes the sysfs files instead of you. The DAMON user space tool is one example of such programs.

  • Kernel Space Programming Interface. This is for kernel space programmers. Using this, users can utilize every feature of DAMON most flexibly and efficiently by writing kernel space DAMON application programs for you. You can even extend DAMON for various address spaces. For detail, please refer to the interface document.

  • debugfs interface. (DEPRECATED!) This is almost identical to sysfs interface. This is deprecated, so users should move to the sysfs interface. If you depend on this and cannot move, please report your usecase to damon@lists.linux.dev and linux-mm@kvack.org.

sysfs Interface

DAMON sysfs interface is built when CONFIG_DAMON_SYSFS is defined. It creates multiple directories and files under its sysfs directory, <sysfs>/kernel/mm/damon/. You can control DAMON by writing to and reading from the files under the directory.

For a short example, users can monitor the virtual address space of a given workload as below.

# cd /sys/kernel/mm/damon/admin/
# echo 1 > kdamonds/nr_kdamonds && echo 1 > kdamonds/0/contexts/nr_contexts
# echo vaddr > kdamonds/0/contexts/0/operations
# echo 1 > kdamonds/0/contexts/0/targets/nr_targets
# echo $(pidof <workload>) > kdamonds/0/contexts/0/targets/0/pid_target
# echo on > kdamonds/0/state

Files Hierarchy

The files hierarchy of DAMON sysfs interface is shown below. In the below figure, parents-children relations are represented with indentations, each directory is having / suffix, and files in each directory are separated by comma (",").

/sys/kernel/mm/damon/admin
│ kdamonds/nr_kdamonds
│ │ 0/state,pid
│ │ │ contexts/nr_contexts
│ │ │ │ 0/avail_operations,operations
│ │ │ │ │ monitoring_attrs/
│ │ │ │ │ │ intervals/sample_us,aggr_us,update_us
│ │ │ │ │ │ nr_regions/min,max
│ │ │ │ │ targets/nr_targets
│ │ │ │ │ │ 0/pid_target
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ regions/nr_regions
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 0/start,end
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ...
│ │ │ │ │ │ ...
│ │ │ │ │ schemes/nr_schemes
│ │ │ │ │ │ 0/action,apply_interval_us
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ access_pattern/
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ sz/min,max
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ nr_accesses/min,max
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ age/min,max
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ quotas/ms,bytes,reset_interval_ms
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ weights/sz_permil,nr_accesses_permil,age_permil
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ goals/nr_goals
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 0/target_value,current_value
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ watermarks/metric,interval_us,high,mid,low
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ filters/nr_filters
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 0/type,matching,memcg_id
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ stats/nr_tried,sz_tried,nr_applied,sz_applied,qt_exceeds
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ tried_regions/total_bytes
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ 0/start,end,nr_accesses,age
│ │ │ │ │ │ │ │ ...
│ │ │ │ │ │ ...
│ │ │ │ ...
│ │ ...

Root

The root of the DAMON sysfs interface is <sysfs>/kernel/mm/damon/, and it has one directory named admin. The directory contains the files for privileged user space programs' control of DAMON. User space tools or daemons having the root permission could use this directory.

kdamonds/

Under the admin directory, one directory, kdamonds, which has files for controlling the kdamonds (refer to design for more details) exists. In the beginning, this directory has only one file, nr_kdamonds. Writing a number (N) to the file creates the number of child directories named 0 to N-1. Each directory represents each kdamond.

kdamonds/<N>/

In each kdamond directory, two files (state and pid) and one directory (contexts) exist.

Reading state returns on if the kdamond is currently running, or off if it is not running.

Users can write below commands for the kdamond to the state file.

  • on: Start running.

  • off: Stop running.

  • commit: Read the user inputs in the sysfs files except state file again.

  • commit_schemes_quota_goals: Read the DAMON-based operation schemes' quota goals.

  • update_schemes_stats: Update the contents of stats files for each DAMON-based operation scheme of the kdamond. For details of the stats, please refer to stats section.

  • update_schemes_tried_regions: Update the DAMON-based operation scheme action tried regions directory for each DAMON-based operation scheme of the kdamond. For details of the DAMON-based operation scheme action tried regions directory, please refer to tried_regions section.

  • update_schemes_tried_bytes: Update only .../tried_regions/total_bytes files.

  • clear_schemes_tried_regions: Clear the DAMON-based operating scheme action tried regions directory for each DAMON-based operation scheme of the kdamond.

If the state is on, reading pid shows the pid of the kdamond thread.

contexts directory contains files for controlling the monitoring contexts that this kdamond will execute.

kdamonds/<N>/contexts/

In the beginning, this directory has only one file, nr_contexts. Writing a number (N) to the file creates the number of child directories named as 0 to N-1. Each directory represents each monitoring context (refer to design for more details). At the moment, only one context per kdamond is supported, so only 0 or 1 can be written to the file.

contexts/<N>/

In each context directory, two files (avail_operations and operations) and three directories (monitoring_attrs, targets, and schemes) exist.

DAMON supports multiple types of monitoring operations, including those for virtual address space and the physical address space. You can get the list of available monitoring operations set on the currently running kernel by reading avail_operations file. Based on the kernel configuration, the file will list some or all of below keywords.

  • vaddr: Monitor virtual address spaces of specific processes

  • fvaddr: Monitor fixed virtual address ranges

  • paddr: Monitor the physical address space of the system

Please refer to regions sysfs directory for detailed differences between the operations sets in terms of the monitoring target regions.

You can set and get what type of monitoring operations DAMON will use for the context by writing one of the keywords listed in avail_operations file and reading from the operations file.

contexts/<N>/monitoring_attrs/

Files for specifying attributes of the monitoring including required quality and efficiency of the monitoring are in monitoring_attrs directory. Specifically, two directories, intervals and nr_regions exist in this directory.

Under intervals directory, three files for DAMON's sampling interval (sample_us), aggregation interval (aggr_us), and update interval (update_us) exist. You can set and get the values in micro-seconds by writing to and reading from the files.

Under nr_regions directory, two files for the lower-bound and upper-bound of DAMON's monitoring regions (min and max, respectively), which controls the monitoring overhead, exist. You can set and get the values by writing to and rading from the files.

For more details about the intervals and monitoring regions range, please refer to the Design document (Design).

contexts/<N>/targets/

In the beginning, this directory has only one file, nr_targets. Writing a number (N) to the file creates the number of child directories named 0 to N-1. Each directory represents each monitoring target.

targets/<N>/

In each target directory, one file (pid_target) and one directory (regions) exist.

If you wrote vaddr to the contexts/<N>/operations, each target should be a process. You can specify the process to DAMON by writing the pid of the process to the pid_target file.

targets/<N>/regions

When vaddr monitoring operations set is being used (vaddr is written to the contexts/<N>/operations file), DAMON automatically sets and updates the monitoring target regions so that entire memory mappings of target processes can be covered. However, users could want to set the initial monitoring region to specific address ranges.

In contrast, DAMON do not automatically sets and updates the monitoring target regions when fvaddr or paddr monitoring operations sets are being used (fvaddr or paddr have written to the contexts/<N>/operations). Therefore, users should set the monitoring target regions by themselves in the cases.

For such cases, users can explicitly set the initial monitoring target regions as they want, by writing proper values to the files under this directory.

In the beginning, this directory has only one file, nr_regions. Writing a number (N) to the file creates the number of child directories named 0 to N-1. Each directory represents each initial monitoring target region.

regions/<N>/

In each region directory, you will find two files (start and end). You can set and get the start and end addresses of the initial monitoring target region by writing to and reading from the files, respectively.

Each region should not overlap with others. end of directory N should be equal or smaller than start of directory N+1.

contexts/<N>/schemes/

The directory for DAMON-based Operation Schemes (DAMOS). Users can get and set the schemes by reading from and writing to files under this directory.

In the beginning, this directory has only one file, nr_schemes. Writing a number (N) to the file creates the number of child directories named 0 to N-1. Each directory represents each DAMON-based operation scheme.

schemes/<N>/

In each scheme directory, five directories (access_pattern, quotas, watermarks, filters, stats, and tried_regions) and two files (action and apply_interval) exist.

The action file is for setting and getting the scheme's action. The keywords that can be written to and read from the file and their meaning are as below.

Note that support of each action depends on the running DAMON operations set implementation.

  • willneed: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_WILLNEED. Supported by vaddr and fvaddr operations set.

  • cold: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_COLD. Supported by vaddr and fvaddr operations set.

  • pageout: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_PAGEOUT. Supported by vaddr, fvaddr and paddr operations set.

  • hugepage: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_HUGEPAGE. Supported by vaddr and fvaddr operations set.

  • nohugepage: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_NOHUGEPAGE. Supported by vaddr and fvaddr operations set.

  • lru_prio: Prioritize the region on its LRU lists. Supported by paddr operations set.

  • lru_deprio: Deprioritize the region on its LRU lists. Supported by paddr operations set.

  • stat: Do nothing but count the statistics. Supported by all operations sets.

The apply_interval_us file is for setting and getting the scheme's apply_interval in microseconds.

schemes/<N>/access_pattern/

The directory for the target access pattern of the given DAMON-based operation scheme.

Under the access_pattern directory, three directories (sz, nr_accesses, and age) each having two files (min and max) exist. You can set and get the access pattern for the given scheme by writing to and reading from the min and max files under sz, nr_accesses, and age directories, respectively. Note that the min and the max form a closed interval.

schemes/<N>/quotas/

The directory for the quotas of the given DAMON-based operation scheme.

Under quotas directory, three files (ms, bytes, reset_interval_ms) and two directores (weights and goals) exist.

You can set the time quota in milliseconds, size quota in bytes, and reset interval in milliseconds by writing the values to the three files, respectively. Then, DAMON tries to use only up to time quota milliseconds for applying the action to memory regions of the access_pattern, and to apply the action to only up to bytes bytes of memory regions within the reset_interval_ms. Setting both ms and bytes zero disables the quota limits.

Under weights directory, three files (sz_permil, nr_accesses_permil, and age_permil) exist. You can set the prioritization weights for size, access frequency, and age in per-thousand unit by writing the values to the three files under the weights directory.

schemes/<N>/quotas/goals/

The directory for the automatic quota tuning goals of the given DAMON-based operation scheme.

In the beginning, this directory has only one file, nr_goals. Writing a number (N) to the file creates the number of child directories named 0 to N-1. Each directory represents each goal and current achievement. Among the multiple feedback, the best one is used.

Each goal directory contains two files, namely target_value and current_value. Users can set and get any number to those files to set the feedback. User space main workload's latency or throughput, system metrics like free memory ratio or memory pressure stall time (PSI) could be example metrics for the values. Note that users should write commit_schemes_quota_goals to the state file of the kdamond directory to pass the feedback to DAMON.

schemes/<N>/watermarks/

The directory for the watermarks of the given DAMON-based operation scheme.

Under the watermarks directory, five files (metric, interval_us, high, mid, and low) for setting the metric, the time interval between check of the metric, and the three watermarks exist. You can set and get the five values by writing to the files, respectively.

Keywords and meanings of those that can be written to the metric file are as below.

  • none: Ignore the watermarks

  • free_mem_rate: System's free memory rate (per thousand)

The interval should written in microseconds unit.

schemes/<N>/filters/

The directory for the filters of the given DAMON-based operation scheme.

In the beginning, this directory has only one file, nr_filters. Writing a number (N) to the file creates the number of child directories named 0 to N-1. Each directory represents each filter. The filters are evaluated in the numeric order.

Each filter directory contains six files, namely type, matcing, memcg_path, addr_start, addr_end, and target_idx. To type file, you can write one of four special keywords: anon for anonymous pages, memcg for specific memory cgroup, addr for specific address range (an open-ended interval), or target for specific DAMON monitoring target filtering. In case of the memory cgroup filtering, you can specify the memory cgroup of the interest by writing the path of the memory cgroup from the cgroups mount point to memcg_path file. In case of the address range filtering, you can specify the start and end address of the range to addr_start and addr_end files, respectively. For the DAMON monitoring target filtering, you can specify the index of the target between the list of the DAMON context's monitoring targets list to target_idx file. You can write Y or N to matching file to filter out pages that does or does not match to the type, respectively. Then, the scheme's action will not be applied to the pages that specified to be filtered out.

For example, below restricts a DAMOS action to be applied to only non-anonymous pages of all memory cgroups except /having_care_already.:

# echo 2 > nr_filters
# # filter out anonymous pages
echo anon > 0/type
echo Y > 0/matching
# # further filter out all cgroups except one at '/having_care_already'
echo memcg > 1/type
echo /having_care_already > 1/memcg_path
echo N > 1/matching

Note that anon and memcg filters are currently supported only when paddr implementation is being used.

Also, memory regions that are filtered out by addr or target filters are not counted as the scheme has tried to those, while regions that filtered out by other type filters are counted as the scheme has tried to. The difference is applied to stats and tried regions.

schemes/<N>/stats/

DAMON counts the total number and bytes of regions that each scheme is tried to be applied, the two numbers for the regions that each scheme is successfully applied, and the total number of the quota limit exceeds. This statistics can be used for online analysis or tuning of the schemes.

The statistics can be retrieved by reading the files under stats directory (nr_tried, sz_tried, nr_applied, sz_applied, and qt_exceeds), respectively. The files are not updated in real time, so you should ask DAMON sysfs interface to update the content of the files for the stats by writing a special keyword, update_schemes_stats to the relevant kdamonds/<N>/state file.

schemes/<N>/tried_regions/

This directory initially has one file, total_bytes.

When a special keyword, update_schemes_tried_regions, is written to the relevant kdamonds/<N>/state file, DAMON updates the total_bytes file so that reading it returns the total size of the scheme tried regions, and creates directories named integer starting from 0 under this directory. Each directory contains files exposing detailed information about each of the memory region that the corresponding scheme's action has tried to be applied under this directory, during next apply interval of the corresponding scheme. The information includes address range, nr_accesses, and age of the region.

Writing update_schemes_tried_bytes to the relevant kdamonds/<N>/state file will only update the total_bytes file, and will not create the subdirectories.

The directories will be removed when another special keyword, clear_schemes_tried_regions, is written to the relevant kdamonds/<N>/state file.

The expected usage of this directory is investigations of schemes' behaviors, and query-like efficient data access monitoring results retrievals. For the latter use case, in particular, users can set the action as stat and set the access pattern as their interested pattern that they want to query.

tried_regions/<N>/

In each region directory, you will find four files (start, end, nr_accesses, and age). Reading the files will show the start and end addresses, nr_accesses, and age of the region that corresponding DAMON-based operation scheme action has tried to be applied.

Example

Below commands applies a scheme saying "If a memory region of size in [4KiB, 8KiB] is showing accesses per aggregate interval in [0, 5] for aggregate interval in [10, 20], page out the region. For the paging out, use only up to 10ms per second, and also don't page out more than 1GiB per second. Under the limitation, page out memory regions having longer age first. Also, check the free memory rate of the system every 5 seconds, start the monitoring and paging out when the free memory rate becomes lower than 50%, but stop it if the free memory rate becomes larger than 60%, or lower than 30%".

# cd <sysfs>/kernel/mm/damon/admin
# # populate directories
# echo 1 > kdamonds/nr_kdamonds; echo 1 > kdamonds/0/contexts/nr_contexts;
# echo 1 > kdamonds/0/contexts/0/schemes/nr_schemes
# cd kdamonds/0/contexts/0/schemes/0
# # set the basic access pattern and the action
# echo 4096 > access_pattern/sz/min
# echo 8192 > access_pattern/sz/max
# echo 0 > access_pattern/nr_accesses/min
# echo 5 > access_pattern/nr_accesses/max
# echo 10 > access_pattern/age/min
# echo 20 > access_pattern/age/max
# echo pageout > action
# # set quotas
# echo 10 > quotas/ms
# echo $((1024*1024*1024)) > quotas/bytes
# echo 1000 > quotas/reset_interval_ms
# # set watermark
# echo free_mem_rate > watermarks/metric
# echo 5000000 > watermarks/interval_us
# echo 600 > watermarks/high
# echo 500 > watermarks/mid
# echo 300 > watermarks/low

Please note that it's highly recommended to use user space tools like damo rather than manually reading and writing the files as above. Above is only for an example.

Tracepoints for Monitoring Results

Users can get the monitoring results via the tried_regions. The interface is useful for getting a snapshot, but it could be inefficient for fully recording all the monitoring results. For the purpose, two trace points, namely damon:damon_aggregated and damon:damos_before_apply, are provided. damon:damon_aggregated provides the whole monitoring results, while damon:damos_before_apply provides the monitoring results for regions that each DAMON-based Operation Scheme (DAMOS) is gonna be applied. Hence, damon:damos_before_apply is more useful for recording internal behavior of DAMOS, or DAMOS target access pattern based query-like efficient monitoring results recording.

While the monitoring is turned on, you could record the tracepoint events and show results using tracepoint supporting tools like perf. For example:

# echo on > kdamonds/0/state
# perf record -e damon:damon_aggregated &
# sleep 5
# kill 9 $(pidof perf)
# echo off > kdamonds/0/state
# perf script
kdamond.0 46568 [027] 79357.842179: damon:damon_aggregated: target_id=0 nr_regions=11 122509119488-135708762112: 0 864
[...]

Each line of the perf script output represents each monitoring region. The first five fields are as usual other tracepoint outputs. The sixth field (target_id=X) shows the ide of the monitoring target of the region. The seventh field (nr_regions=X) shows the total number of monitoring regions for the target. The eighth field (X-Y:) shows the start (X) and end (Y) addresses of the region in bytes. The ninth field (X) shows the nr_accesses of the region (refer to design for more details of the counter). Finally the tenth field (X) shows the age of the region (refer to design for more details of the counter).

If the event was damon:damos_beofre_apply, the perf script output would be somewhat like below:

kdamond.0 47293 [000] 80801.060214: damon:damos_before_apply: ctx_idx=0 scheme_idx=0 target_idx=0 nr_regions=11 121932607488-135128711168: 0 136
[...]

Each line of the output represents each monitoring region that each DAMON-based Operation Scheme was about to be applied at the traced time. The first five fields are as usual. It shows the index of the DAMON context (ctx_idx=X) of the scheme in the list of the contexts of the context's kdamond, the index of the scheme (scheme_idx=X) in the list of the schemes of the context, in addition to the output of damon_aggregated tracepoint.

debugfs Interface (DEPRECATED!)

Note

THIS IS DEPRECATED!

DAMON debugfs interface is deprecated, so users should move to the sysfs interface. If you depend on this and cannot move, please report your usecase to damon@lists.linux.dev and linux-mm@kvack.org.

DAMON exports nine files, DEPRECATED, attrs, target_ids, init_regions, schemes, monitor_on_DEPRECATED, kdamond_pid, mk_contexts and rm_contexts under its debugfs directory, <debugfs>/damon/.

DEPRECATED is a read-only file for the DAMON debugfs interface deprecation notice. Reading it returns the deprecation notice, as below:

# cat DEPRECATED
DAMON debugfs interface is deprecated, so users should move to DAMON_SYSFS. If you cannot, please report your usecase to damon@lists.linux.dev and linux-mm@kvack.org.

Attributes

Users can get and set the sampling interval, aggregation interval, update interval, and min/max number of monitoring target regions by reading from and writing to the attrs file. To know about the monitoring attributes in detail, please refer to the Design. For example, below commands set those values to 5 ms, 100 ms, 1,000 ms, 10 and 1000, and then check it again:

# cd <debugfs>/damon
# echo 5000 100000 1000000 10 1000 > attrs
# cat attrs
5000 100000 1000000 10 1000

Target IDs

Some types of address spaces supports multiple monitoring target. For example, the virtual memory address spaces monitoring can have multiple processes as the monitoring targets. Users can set the targets by writing relevant id values of the targets to, and get the ids of the current targets by reading from the target_ids file. In case of the virtual address spaces monitoring, the values should be pids of the monitoring target processes. For example, below commands set processes having pids 42 and 4242 as the monitoring targets and check it again:

# cd <debugfs>/damon
# echo 42 4242 > target_ids
# cat target_ids
42 4242

Users can also monitor the physical memory address space of the system by writing a special keyword, "paddr\n" to the file. Because physical address space monitoring doesn't support multiple targets, reading the file will show a fake value, 42, as below:

# cd <debugfs>/damon
# echo paddr > target_ids
# cat target_ids
42

Note that setting the target ids doesn't start the monitoring.

Initial Monitoring Target Regions

In case of the virtual address space monitoring, DAMON automatically sets and updates the monitoring target regions so that entire memory mappings of target processes can be covered. However, users can want to limit the monitoring region to specific address ranges, such as the heap, the stack, or specific file-mapped area. Or, some users can know the initial access pattern of their workloads and therefore want to set optimal initial regions for the 'adaptive regions adjustment'.

In contrast, DAMON do not automatically sets and updates the monitoring target regions in case of physical memory monitoring. Therefore, users should set the monitoring target regions by themselves.

In such cases, users can explicitly set the initial monitoring target regions as they want, by writing proper values to the init_regions file. The input should be a sequence of three integers separated by white spaces that represent one region in below form.:

<target idx> <start address> <end address>

The target idx should be the index of the target in target_ids file, starting from 0, and the regions should be passed in address order. For example, below commands will set a couple of address ranges, 1-100 and 100-200 as the initial monitoring target region of pid 42, which is the first one (index 0) in target_ids, and another couple of address ranges, 20-40 and 50-100 as that of pid 4242, which is the second one (index 1) in target_ids.:

# cd <debugfs>/damon
# cat target_ids
42 4242
# echo "0   1       100 \
        0   100     200 \
        1   20      40  \
        1   50      100" > init_regions

Note that this sets the initial monitoring target regions only. In case of virtual memory monitoring, DAMON will automatically updates the boundary of the regions after one update interval. Therefore, users should set the update interval large enough in this case, if they don't want the update.

Schemes

Users can get and set the DAMON-based operation schemes by reading from and writing to schemes debugfs file. Reading the file also shows the statistics of each scheme. To the file, each of the schemes should be represented in each line in below form:

<target access pattern> <action> <quota> <watermarks>

You can disable schemes by simply writing an empty string to the file.

Target Access Pattern

The target access pattern of the scheme. The <target access pattern> is constructed with three ranges in below form:

min-size max-size min-acc max-acc min-age max-age

Specifically, bytes for the size of regions (min-size and max-size), number of monitored accesses per aggregate interval for access frequency (min-acc and max-acc), number of aggregate intervals for the age of regions (min-age and max-age) are specified. Note that the ranges are closed interval.

Action

The <action> is a predefined integer for memory management actions. The supported numbers and their meanings are as below.

  • 0: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_WILLNEED. Ignored if target is paddr.

  • 1: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_COLD. Ignored if target is paddr.

  • 2: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_PAGEOUT.

  • 3: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_HUGEPAGE. Ignored if target is paddr.

  • 4: Call madvise() for the region with MADV_NOHUGEPAGE. Ignored if target is paddr.

  • 5: Do nothing but count the statistics

Quota

Users can set the quotas of the given scheme via the <quota> in below form:

<ms> <sz> <reset interval> <priority weights>

This makes DAMON to try to use only up to <ms> milliseconds for applying the action to memory regions of the target access pattern within the <reset interval> milliseconds, and to apply the action to only up to <sz> bytes of memory regions within the <reset interval>. Setting both <ms> and <sz> zero disables the quota limits.

For the prioritization, users can set the weights for the three properties in <priority weights> in below form:

<size weight> <access frequency weight> <age weight>

Watermarks

Users can specify watermarks of the given scheme via <watermarks> in below form:

<metric> <check interval> <high mark> <middle mark> <low mark>

<metric> is a predefined integer for the metric to be checked. The supported numbers and their meanings are as below.

  • 0: Ignore the watermarks

  • 1: System's free memory rate (per thousand)

The value of the metric is checked every <check interval> microseconds.

If the value is higher than <high mark> or lower than <low mark>, the scheme is deactivated. If the value is lower than <mid mark>, the scheme is activated.

Statistics

It also counts the total number and bytes of regions that each scheme is tried to be applied, the two numbers for the regions that each scheme is successfully applied, and the total number of the quota limit exceeds. This statistics can be used for online analysis or tuning of the schemes.

The statistics can be shown by reading the schemes file. Reading the file will show each scheme you entered in each line, and the five numbers for the statistics will be added at the end of each line.

Example

Below commands applies a scheme saying "If a memory region of size in [4KiB, 8KiB] is showing accesses per aggregate interval in [0, 5] for aggregate interval in [10, 20], page out the region. For the paging out, use only up to 10ms per second, and also don't page out more than 1GiB per second. Under the limitation, page out memory regions having longer age first. Also, check the free memory rate of the system every 5 seconds, start the monitoring and paging out when the free memory rate becomes lower than 50%, but stop it if the free memory rate becomes larger than 60%, or lower than 30%".:

# cd <debugfs>/damon
# scheme="4096 8192  0 5    10 20    2"  # target access pattern and action
# scheme+=" 10 $((1024*1024*1024)) 1000" # quotas
# scheme+=" 0 0 100"                     # prioritization weights
# scheme+=" 1 5000000 600 500 300"       # watermarks
# echo "$scheme" > schemes

Turning On/Off

Setting the files as described above doesn't incur effect unless you explicitly start the monitoring. You can start, stop, and check the current status of the monitoring by writing to and reading from the monitor_on_DEPRECATED file. Writing on to the file starts the monitoring of the targets with the attributes. Writing off to the file stops those. DAMON also stops if every target process is terminated. Below example commands turn on, off, and check the status of DAMON:

# cd <debugfs>/damon
# echo on > monitor_on_DEPRECATED
# echo off > monitor_on_DEPRECATED
# cat monitor_on_DEPRECATED
off

Please note that you cannot write to the above-mentioned debugfs files while the monitoring is turned on. If you write to the files while DAMON is running, an error code such as -EBUSY will be returned.

Monitoring Thread PID

DAMON does requested monitoring with a kernel thread called kdamond. You can get the pid of the thread by reading the kdamond_pid file. When the monitoring is turned off, reading the file returns none.

# cd <debugfs>/damon
# cat monitor_on_DEPRECATED
off
# cat kdamond_pid
none
# echo on > monitor_on_DEPRECATED
# cat kdamond_pid
18594

Using Multiple Monitoring Threads

One kdamond thread is created for each monitoring context. You can create and remove monitoring contexts for multiple kdamond required use case using the mk_contexts and rm_contexts files.

Writing the name of the new context to the mk_contexts file creates a directory of the name on the DAMON debugfs directory. The directory will have DAMON debugfs files for the context.

# cd <debugfs>/damon
# ls foo
# ls: cannot access 'foo': No such file or directory
# echo foo > mk_contexts
# ls foo
# attrs  init_regions  kdamond_pid  schemes  target_ids

If the context is not needed anymore, you can remove it and the corresponding directory by putting the name of the context to the rm_contexts file.

# echo foo > rm_contexts
# ls foo
# ls: cannot access 'foo': No such file or directory

Note that mk_contexts, rm_contexts, and monitor_on_DEPRECATED files are in the root directory only.