Short users guide for SLUB¶
The basic philosophy of SLUB is very different from SLAB. SLAB requires rebuilding the kernel to activate debug options for all slab caches. SLUB always includes full debugging but it is off by default. SLUB can enable debugging only for selected slabs in order to avoid an impact on overall system performance which may make a bug more difficult to find.
In order to switch debugging on one can add an option
to the kernel command line. That will enable full debugging for
Typically one would then use the
slabinfo command to get statistical
data and perform operation on the slabs. By default
slabinfo only lists
slabs that have data in them. See "slabinfo -h" for more options when
running the command.
slabinfo can be compiled with
gcc -o slabinfo tools/mm/slabinfo.c
Some of the modes of operation of
slabinfo require that slub debugging
be enabled on the command line. F.e. no tracking information will be
available without debugging on and validation can only partially
be performed if debugging was not switched on.
Some more sophisticated uses of slub_debug:¶
Parameters may be given to
slub_debug. If none is specified then full
debugging is enabled. Format:
Enable options for all slabs
- slub_debug=<Debug-Options>,<slab name1>,<slab name2>,...
Enable options only for select slabs (no spaces after a comma)
Multiple blocks of options for all slabs or selected slabs can be given, with blocks of options delimited by ';'. The last of "all slabs" blocks is applied to all slabs except those that match one of the "select slabs" block. Options of the first "select slabs" blocks that matches the slab's name are applied.
Possible debug options are:
F Sanity checks on (enables SLAB_DEBUG_CONSISTENCY_CHECKS Sorry SLAB legacy issues) Z Red zoning P Poisoning (object and padding) U User tracking (free and alloc) T Trace (please only use on single slabs) A Enable failslab filter mark for the cache O Switch debugging off for caches that would have caused higher minimum slab orders - Switch all debugging off (useful if the kernel is configured with CONFIG_SLUB_DEBUG_ON)
F.e. in order to boot just with sanity checks and red zoning one would specify:
Trying to find an issue in the dentry cache? Try:
to only enable debugging on the dentry cache. You may use an asterisk at the end of the slab name, in order to cover all slabs with the same prefix. For example, here's how you can poison the dentry cache as well as all kmalloc slabs:
Red zoning and tracking may realign the slab. We can just apply sanity checks to the dentry cache with:
Debugging options may require the minimum possible slab order to increase as a result of storing the metadata (for example, caches with PAGE_SIZE object sizes). This has a higher liklihood of resulting in slab allocation errors in low memory situations or if there's high fragmentation of memory. To switch off debugging for such caches by default, use:
You can apply different options to different list of slab names, using blocks of options. This will enable red zoning for dentry and user tracking for kmalloc. All other slabs will not get any debugging enabled:
You can also enable options (e.g. sanity checks and poisoning) for all caches except some that are deemed too performance critical and don't need to be debugged by specifying global debug options followed by a list of slab names with "-" as options:
The state of each debug option for a slab can be found in the respective files under:
If the file contains 1, the option is enabled, 0 means disabled. The debug
options from the
slub_debug parameter translate to the following files:
F sanity_checks Z red_zone P poison U store_user T trace A failslab
failslab file is writable, so writing 1 or 0 will enable or disable the option at runtime. Write returns -EINVAL if cache is an alias. Careful with tracing: It may spew out lots of information and never stop if used on the wrong slab.
If no debug options are specified then SLUB may merge similar slabs together
in order to reduce overhead and increase cache hotness of objects.
slabinfo -a displays which slabs were merged together.
SLUB can validate all object if the kernel was booted with slub_debug. In
order to do so you must have the
slabinfo tool. Then you can do
which will test all objects. Output will be generated to the syslog.
This also works in a more limited way if boot was without slab debug.
In that case
slabinfo -v simply tests all reachable objects. Usually
these are in the cpu slabs and the partial slabs. Full slabs are not
tracked by SLUB in a non debug situation.
Getting more performance¶
To some degree SLUB's performance is limited by the need to take the list_lock once in a while to deal with partial slabs. That overhead is governed by the order of the allocation for each slab. The allocations can be influenced by kernel parameters:
allows to specify how many objects must at least fit into one slab in order for the allocation order to be acceptable. In general slub will be able to perform this number of allocations on a slab without consulting centralized resources (list_lock) where contention may occur.
specifies a minimum order of slabs. A similar effect like
specified the order at which
slub_min_objectsshould no longer be checked. This is useful to avoid SLUB trying to generate super large order pages to fit
slub_min_objectsof a slab cache with large object sizes into one high order page. Setting command line parameter
debug_guardpage_minorder=N(N > 0), forces setting
slub_max_orderto 0, what cause minimum possible order of slabs allocation.
SLUB Debug output¶
Here is a sample of slub debug output:
==================================================================== BUG kmalloc-8: Right Redzone overwritten -------------------------------------------------------------------- INFO: 0xc90f6d28-0xc90f6d2b. First byte 0x00 instead of 0xcc INFO: Slab 0xc528c530 flags=0x400000c3 inuse=61 fp=0xc90f6d58 INFO: Object 0xc90f6d20 @offset=3360 fp=0xc90f6d58 INFO: Allocated in get_modalias+0x61/0xf5 age=53 cpu=1 pid=554 Bytes b4 (0xc90f6d10): 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a ........ZZZZZZZZ Object (0xc90f6d20): 31 30 31 39 2e 30 30 35 1019.005 Redzone (0xc90f6d28): 00 cc cc cc . Padding (0xc90f6d50): 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a 5a ZZZZZZZZ [<c010523d>] dump_trace+0x63/0x1eb [<c01053df>] show_trace_log_lvl+0x1a/0x2f [<c010601d>] show_trace+0x12/0x14 [<c0106035>] dump_stack+0x16/0x18 [<c017e0fa>] object_err+0x143/0x14b [<c017e2cc>] check_object+0x66/0x234 [<c017eb43>] __slab_free+0x239/0x384 [<c017f446>] kfree+0xa6/0xc6 [<c02e2335>] get_modalias+0xb9/0xf5 [<c02e23b7>] dmi_dev_uevent+0x27/0x3c [<c027866a>] dev_uevent+0x1ad/0x1da [<c0205024>] kobject_uevent_env+0x20a/0x45b [<c020527f>] kobject_uevent+0xa/0xf [<c02779f1>] store_uevent+0x4f/0x58 [<c027758e>] dev_attr_store+0x29/0x2f [<c01bec4f>] sysfs_write_file+0x16e/0x19c [<c0183ba7>] vfs_write+0xd1/0x15a [<c01841d7>] sys_write+0x3d/0x72 [<c0104112>] sysenter_past_esp+0x5f/0x99 [<b7f7b410>] 0xb7f7b410 ======================= FIX kmalloc-8: Restoring Redzone 0xc90f6d28-0xc90f6d2b=0xcc
If SLUB encounters a corrupted object (full detection requires the kernel to be booted with slub_debug) then the following output will be dumped into the syslog:
Description of the problem encountered
This will be a message in the system log starting with:
=============================================== BUG <slab cache affected>: <What went wrong> ----------------------------------------------- INFO: <corruption start>-<corruption_end> <more info> INFO: Slab <address> <slab information> INFO: Object <address> <object information> INFO: Allocated in <kernel function> age=<jiffies since alloc> cpu=<allocated by cpu> pid=<pid of the process> INFO: Freed in <kernel function> age=<jiffies since free> cpu=<freed by cpu> pid=<pid of the process>
(Object allocation / free information is only available if SLAB_STORE_USER is set for the slab. slub_debug sets that option)
The object contents if an object was involved.
Various types of lines can follow the BUG SLUB line:
- Bytes b4 <address><bytes>
Shows a few bytes before the object where the problem was detected. Can be useful if the corruption does not stop with the start of the object.
- Object <address><bytes>
The bytes of the object. If the object is inactive then the bytes typically contain poison values. Any non-poison value shows a corruption by a write after free.
- Redzone <address><bytes>
The Redzone following the object. The Redzone is used to detect writes after the object. All bytes should always have the same value. If there is any deviation then it is due to a write after the object boundary.
(Redzone information is only available if SLAB_RED_ZONE is set. slub_debug sets that option)
- Padding <address><bytes>
Unused data to fill up the space in order to get the next object properly aligned. In the debug case we make sure that there are at least 4 bytes of padding. This allows the detection of writes before the object.
The stackdump describes the location where the error was detected. The cause of the corruption is may be more likely found by looking at the function that allocated or freed the object.
Report on how the problem was dealt with in order to ensure the continued operation of the system.
These are messages in the system log beginning with:
FIX <slab cache affected>: <corrective action taken>
In the above sample SLUB found that the Redzone of an active object has been overwritten. Here a string of 8 characters was written into a slab that has the length of 8 characters. However, a 8 character string needs a terminating 0. That zero has overwritten the first byte of the Redzone field. After reporting the details of the issue encountered the FIX SLUB message tells us that SLUB has restored the Redzone to its proper value and then system operations continue.
Minimal debugging (sanity checks alone) can be enabled by booting with:
This will be generally be enough to enable the resiliency features of slub which will keep the system running even if a bad kernel component will keep corrupting objects. This may be important for production systems. Performance will be impacted by the sanity checks and there will be a continual stream of error messages to the syslog but no additional memory will be used (unlike full debugging).
No guarantees. The kernel component still needs to be fixed. Performance may be optimized further by locating the slab that experiences corruption and enabling debugging only for that cache
If the corruption occurs by writing after the end of the object then it may be advisable to enable a Redzone to avoid corrupting the beginning of other objects:
Extended slabinfo mode and plotting¶
slabinfotool has a special 'extended' ('-X') mode that includes:
Slabs sorted by size (up to -N <num> slabs, default 1)
Slabs sorted by loss (up to -N <num> slabs, default 1)
Additionally, in this mode
slabinfo does not dynamically scale
sizes (G/M/K) and reports everything in bytes (this functionality is
also available to other slabinfo modes via '-B' option) which makes
reporting more precise and accurate. Moreover, in some sense the -X'
mode also simplifies the analysis of slabs' behaviour, because its
output can be plotted using the ``slabinfo-gnuplot.sh` script. So it
pushes the analysis from looking through the numbers (tons of numbers)
to something easier -- visual analysis.
To generate plots:
collect slabinfo extended records, for example:
while [ 1 ]; do slabinfo -X >> FOO_STATS; sleep 1; done
pass stats file(-s) to
slabinfo-gnuplot.sh FOO_STATS [FOO_STATS2 .. FOO_STATSN]
slabinfo-gnuplot.shscript will pre-processes the collected records and generates 3 png files (and 3 pre-processing cache files) per STATS file: - Slabcache Totals: FOO_STATS-totals.png - Slabs sorted by size: FOO_STATS-slabs-by-size.png - Slabs sorted by loss: FOO_STATS-slabs-by-loss.png
Another use case, when
slabinfo-gnuplot.sh can be useful, is when you
need to compare slabs' behaviour "prior to" and "after" some code
modification. To help you out there,
can 'merge' the Slabcache Totals sections from different
measurements. To visually compare N plots:
Collect as many STATS1, STATS2, .. STATSN files as you need:
while [ 1 ]; do slabinfo -X >> STATS<X>; sleep 1; done
Pre-process those STATS files:
slabinfo-gnuplot.sh STATS1 STATS2 .. STATSN
slabinfo-gnuplot.shin '-t' mode, passing all of the generated pre-processed *-totals:
slabinfo-gnuplot.sh -t STATS1-totals STATS2-totals .. STATSN-totals
This will produce a single plot (png file).
Plots, expectedly, can be large so some fluctuations or small spikes can go unnoticed. To deal with that,
slabinfo-gnuplot.shhas two options to 'zoom-in'/'zoom-out':
-s %d,%d-- overwrites the default image width and height
-r %d,%d-- specifies a range of samples to use (for example, in
slabinfo -X >> FOO_STATS; sleep 1;case, using a
-r 40,60range will plot only samples collected between 40th and 60th seconds).
DebugFS files for SLUB¶
For more information about current state of SLUB caches with the user tracking debug option enabled, debugfs files are available, typically under /sys/kernel/debug/slab/<cache>/ (created only for caches with enabled user tracking). There are 2 types of these files with the following debug information:
Prints information about unique allocation traces of the currently allocated objects. The output is sorted by frequency of each trace. Information in the output: Number of objects, allocating function, possible memory wastage of kmalloc objects(total/per-object), minimal/average/maximal jiffies since alloc, pid range of the allocating processes, cpu mask of allocating cpus, numa node mask of origins of memory, and stack trace. Example::: 338 pci_alloc_dev+0x2c/0xa0 waste=521872/1544 age=290837/291891/293509 pid=1 cpus=106 nodes=0-1 __kmem_cache_alloc_node+0x11f/0x4e0 kmalloc_trace+0x26/0xa0 pci_alloc_dev+0x2c/0xa0 pci_scan_single_device+0xd2/0x150 pci_scan_slot+0xf7/0x2d0 pci_scan_child_bus_extend+0x4e/0x360 acpi_pci_root_create+0x32e/0x3b0 pci_acpi_scan_root+0x2b9/0x2d0 acpi_pci_root_add.cold.11+0x110/0xb0a acpi_bus_attach+0x262/0x3f0 device_for_each_child+0xb7/0x110 acpi_dev_for_each_child+0x77/0xa0 acpi_bus_attach+0x108/0x3f0 device_for_each_child+0xb7/0x110 acpi_dev_for_each_child+0x77/0xa0 acpi_bus_attach+0x108/0x3f0
Prints information about unique freeing traces of the currently allocated objects. The freeing traces thus come from the previous life-cycle of the objects and are reported as not available for objects allocated for the first time. The output is sorted by frequency of each trace. Information in the output: Number of objects, freeing function, minimal/average/maximal jiffies since free, pid range of the freeing processes, cpu mask of freeing cpus, and stack trace. Example::: 1980 <not-available> age=4294912290 pid=0 cpus=0 51 acpi_ut_update_ref_count+0x6a6/0x782 age=236886/237027/237772 pid=1 cpus=1 kfree+0x2db/0x420 acpi_ut_update_ref_count+0x6a6/0x782 acpi_ut_update_object_reference+0x1ad/0x234 acpi_ut_remove_reference+0x7d/0x84 acpi_rs_get_prt_method_data+0x97/0xd6 acpi_get_irq_routing_table+0x82/0xc4 acpi_pci_irq_find_prt_entry+0x8e/0x2e0 acpi_pci_irq_lookup+0x3a/0x1e0 acpi_pci_irq_enable+0x77/0x240 pcibios_enable_device+0x39/0x40 do_pci_enable_device.part.0+0x5d/0xe0 pci_enable_device_flags+0xfc/0x120 pci_enable_device+0x13/0x20 virtio_pci_probe+0x9e/0x170 local_pci_probe+0x48/0x80 pci_device_probe+0x105/0x1c0
Christoph Lameter, May 30, 2007 Sergey Senozhatsky, October 23, 2015