2.10. YUV Formats

YUV is the format native to TV broadcast and composite video signals. It separates the brightness information (Y) from the color information (U and V or Cb and Cr). The color information consists of red and blue color difference signals, this way the green component can be reconstructed by subtracting from the brightness component. See Colorspaces for conversion examples. YUV was chosen because early television would only transmit brightness information. To add color in a way compatible with existing receivers a new signal carrier was added to transmit the color difference signals. Secondary in the YUV format the U and V components usually have lower resolution than the Y component. This is an analog video compression technique taking advantage of a property of the human visual system, being more sensitive to brightness information.